Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975 - 36

TECHNICAL REPORTS

DA_YID_H_Al_E&_F_RED_M_,W_Ol_FF

STAGE FLOOR STRUCTURE AND SURFACES FOR DANCE
LYN F. CALIVA
What is a dance floor?
A dance floor is a flat, smooth, resilient, unslippery
surface on which a dancer can glide, jump, fall, turn and
move with ease and without fear of injury. This is an ideal
that dancers are always searching for. In this article I will
try to answer questions that have been asked me about
ways to make existing - or purchased - dance floors
more like the ideal surface.
Why do you need a dance floor?
Anyone who has ever suffered a shin-splint, or other
injury resulting from a hard, bumpy or splintery surface
knows how important a good floor is. Anyone wanting to
work with dancers or provide them with a work space
must remember that the floor is the basic, most essential
element in their environment. Only if they know they can
work safely, and with ease, will they be free to do their
best dancing.
Is there a difference between a floor for "ballet" and a
floor for "modern"?
There is no basic difference in the floor, but the
emphasis is on different qualities. Any slipperiness can be
the undoing of a dancer on pointe; splinters, on the other
hand, are very painful in bare feet. I have found that
experienced dancers know their own weaknesses best, and
can compensate for a less than perfect floor, as long as
they know about problems in advance. Inexperienced
dancers should be watched, and warned about hazards
such as concrete underflooring.
How can you tell if a wooden floor is laid directly on
concrete?
I "test" a floor by jumping on it in street shoes (not
heavy ones). If I get a stabbing pain in my ankles, instead
of a bounce, I can be sure the floor is too hard to dance
on, whether laid on concrete or whatever. A more
scientific method would be to take a long finishing nail (at
least 2'h inches long) and drive it into the floor. If the nail
bends, the floor is laid directly on a hard surface. Use a
finishing nail because it will leave a very little hole and not
ruin the floor. Access to building plans is often difficult,
but they do give the best information regarding the
construction of a stage or rehearsal room floor.
Is there a quick way to remove a slippery wax finish from
a wooden floor?
Yes, if you don't have to worry about replacing the
finish: mop the floor with coca-cola. I must tell you,
though, that this will destroy most floor finishes. If you
have the time, turpentine will remove most wax without
destroying the finish. If you use turpentine, ventilate the
room for about six hours, or until the smell disappears
before inviting the dancers in.
What is a portable dance floor?
This is a removable surface laid on an existing floor to
make it smoother, less slick, and, depending on its design

34

and the materials used, more resilient. It cannot correct
serious faults like holes, warping or real hardness.
What portable dance floors are available?
The oldest and most common is battleship linoleum,
manufactured most widely by Armstrong. However, the
energy crisis forced Armstrong to discontinue making this
flooring in the summer of 1974 (it is a petroleum
product) and there are no indications whether they will
ever go back into production. However, some distributors
have a supply on hand, if you are willing to search. It is
worth the effort, because nothing that inexpensive has
been developed that will correct as many flaws as
battleship linoleum can. It has a rubber-cork surface on a
cloth (burlap) base and is almost a quarter inch thick.
When cemented permanently over an existing floor, it will
last twenty years with proper care. It is also portable, and
has been a mainstay of many touring dance companies.
However, it is very heavy (a six foot by thirty foot piece
weighs about 150 pounds). Also, it cracks in the cold and
stretches with the heat, and must be handled very
carefully to keep it in good shape.
A recent entry in portable flooring is the "Marley
floor." Marley Tile is an English company, but there is at
least one American distributor for this product. It is made
of two sheets of vinyl (one white and one black) glued
together, providing two usable surfaces. It is smooth and
not slippery, but has no resiliency. It is thin (about one
sixteenth of an inch) and light (a six foot by thirty foot
piece weighs about forty pounds), but it can only
conform to the surface on which it is laid. It will remove
the danger of splinters, but not other imperfections, like
gouges or nails above the surface. It does not react to
cold, but can stretch slightly when hot. It is the least
expensive of the acceptable portable floors. Its good
qualities make it ideal for a touring company that only
performs in good theatres or for an institution where the
stage or studio must be shared with non-dancers, but
where the basic floor is decent.
A few months ago I learned of another flooring
material that sounds marvelous, but I have had no
personal experience with it. It is made in Sweden, and the
only North American distributor is Century Flooring in
Winnipeg, Canada. I would suggest the telephone if you
want information because others as well as I have had
little success in getting them to answer letters. I have a
small sample, however, and it is vinyl sheet with a .foam
base. It seems to combine the best qualities of battleship
linoleum and the Marley floor. It is light weight, does not
react to heat or cold, has resilience, and tends to flatten
out a rough surface. However, it is very expensive, about
three times the cost of battleship linoleum, and four times
that of the Marley flooring. It is being used by two dance
companies that I know of: North Carolina Dance Theatre
and the Royal Winnipeg Ballet Company.
Plywood sheets can be used to cover a bad surface, but
you must use very good plywood, and give it a finish, and
that is expensive. Also, it is heavy, difficult to store or

USITT

THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

FALL,1975



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1975 - Contents
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