Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 10

the treatise on architecture written by the Roman
architect Vitruvius in 27 B.C. The second event, with
equally long-range consequences for theatre auditorium design, was initiated by Richard Wagner in
1869. Acting on his own and free of the dominance of
princely patronage, Wagner named Buhnenmeister
Carl Brandt of Darmstadt technical advisor for the
design and construction of the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. By this act he virtually single-handedly created
the role of the modern theatre consultant. Had it not
been for the mechanical ingenuity and forthright
personal integrity of Brandt, it is doubtful that the
Bayreuth Festspielhaus would have been built at all.
The third event of importance was occasioned by
accident in 1898 when Associate Professor of Physics
Wallace Clement Sabine at Harward University was
asked by President Eliot to see if there was
something he could do about an acoustical failure of
an auditorium resulting from the architectural design
of architect Richard Morris Hunt in the Fogg
Museum on the Harvard campus. Do something he
did: within a year Sabine discovered his now famous
reverberation equation, and the rational basis for
modern room acoustical engineering became a stunning reality.
It is now obvious that the work of engineer John
Scott Russell, Buhnenmeister Carl Brandt, engineerarch'itect Dankmar Adler, and physicist Wallace
Clement Sabine can be said to have established the
principles that underlie rational modern theatre
auditorium design. In this context it is also essential
that I point out that for the three hundred years
between the late Sixteenth Century Italian Renaissance and the late Nineteenth Century Western
European Industrial Revolution, theatre design was
fair game for architectural designers who, scientifically speaking, understood virtually nothing and
cared even less about the specifics of how an
audience either sees or hears a performance from the
stage of a theatre. Add to this the practice of theatre
architecture as a social art, tightly circumscribed by
the rigid rules of court etiquette, plus the fact that
the established princely and imperial power structure, in granting architectural commissions for the
design of theatres, exercised complete control of the
purse, and you get some inkling of how difficult it
was to break the precedent of three centuries of
unremitting social pressure and architectural tradition on theatre design. Without going into detail
which you can do at your leisure and as your fancy
dictates, there is no longer any question in my mind
that the impasse was broken by Brandt at Bayreuth
and Adler at Chicago, both of whom used the
theoretical means provided by Russell. Sabine at
Boston, using his own theory of acoustic design on a

10

new building for the first time (the now world-famous
Boston Symphony Hall), also got it exactly right. Put
another way, Brandt and Adler, the pragmatic
nineteenth century theatre designers, bracketed in
time by Russell and Sabine, the Nineteenth Century
engineering and scientific theoreticians, achieved the
breakthroughs in theatre auditorium design in which
seating systems were based on sound scientific
principles. Within two decades the proliferation of
cheap electrical energy added the lensed spotlight to
the theatre designer's bag of tools, and theatre
design was ready for the logically following artistic
innovations of Max Reinhardt in Germany, Jacques
Copeau in France, and Sir Tyrone Guthrie in Canada
and the United States. Now it is history that within
the last century the exclusivity of Baroque proscenium theatre design has been broken down. I contend,
however, that it was a far greater step from the aristocratic horseshoe-shaped auditorium of Teatro Alia
Scala to the democratic fan-shaped auditorium of
Bayreuth than from Bayreuth to Guthrie. It is high
time it be written large in theatre history that it was
this quartet of nineteenth century pragmatists Russell, Brandt, Adler and Sabine - and not the
dreamy pronouncements of the artistic theoreticians,
that dispelled the cloud of high-powered pseudotheoretical nonsense that ever since Vitruvius had
shrouded the related phenomena of how an audience
sees and hears in an enclosed theatre auditorium.
Without Brandt at Bayreuth, Adler at Chicago, and
Sabine at Boston, contemporary theatre design would
have turned out quite differently indeed. The detailed account of how all this happened is some of the
most interesting reading in the history of theatre
design. In particular it is John Scott Russell's essay
on sight lines and Wallace Clement Sabine's collected essays on acoustics that are the cornerstones of
modern rational theatre design. These writings are in
the main non-technical; use of the English language
by both men was lucid, direct, and unadorned. The
pity then as now is that architects and the majority of
theatre designers don't read them and that theatre
historians on both sides of the Atlantic have failed to
notice as well as appreciate their importance to
theatre design.
Over the last century in Germany, ever since the
elder Brandt (Carl) was succeeded as technical
director at Bayreuth by his son Fritz, it has become
established procedure that the tradition of advising
on technical matters in the design of new and the
remodeling of old theatres should be the province of
many famous technical directors, who quite naturally
became the theatre consultants and technical innovators of the late Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries.
This is in contrast to the subservience of theatre



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 20
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 33
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1975 - 35
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com