Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1976 - 22

opment of theatre technology within the realities that
gO,vern theatre economy, in the Western hemisphere at
this time. Given the cultural ~ and the unique position occupied by higher education in the United States,
it is doubtful that a program of training in theatre designengineering such as this could have been developed anywhere other than within the corpus of a private university.
George C. Izenour
Professor
Theatre Design and Technology
Director
Electro-Mechanical Laboratory, School of Drama
Yale University

TRAINING THE SCENOGRAPHER

ing, directing, acting and design, all add up to what I
would call a level of high artistic achievement. These are
rare occasions indeed and most gratifying to all concerned. The rest of the time, I am usually happy to offer
my master-craftsmanship and even here I have had my
share of failures.
Now to make a comment or two about scenographic
training in the United States.
Before 1930, most artists turning toward the theatre,
were strongly influenced by English and Western European contacts, and by the apprenticeship system. In the
1920's, we were richly endowed by the very high lev~1
of scenographers like Robert Edmond Jones, Norman
Bel Geddes and Lee Simonson. Besides studying drawing
and painting in Europe, I was well trained as an apprentice to both Simonson and Jones. The craftsmen who
designed and painted scenery in those days, were members of a trade union called "United Scenic Artists" where working hours and high hourly wages were guaranteed. Scenographers in those days often suffered from
commercial managers, who either failed to pay a design
fee previously agreed upon, or if the play was closed by
bad reviews, we were left with no payment at all!

In the following brief comments on the training of
a scenographer, I naturally refer to conditions of practice
and training in the United States.
I address you not as an academic teacher, but purely
as a professional practitioner. Although I have lectured
and taught some master classes at American Universities
in recent years, my career of over five decades has been
almost totally involved as a professional scenographer
covering scenery, stage lighting and costume for all types
of dramas, ballets, musicals and opera.
Has the average scenographer the right to call himself
an "artist"? Under certain circumstances he or she should
be called an artist. But, these special and often rare circumstances may be achieved when the entire creative
team of playwright, stage director, performers and scenographers all join forces collaboratively on a project that is
of fjrst class dramatic material, expertly produced with a
level of visual interpretation. Only under such high levels
of creative collaboration can the scenographer rightly
call himself a true artist.
At other and far more frequent occasions, I would settle for the title of "Master Craftsman."
We all are aware of the countless times when one or
even two members of the creative team may produce
their contribution on a level worthy of the term "art."
No matter how imaginative and beautiful the scenographer's contribution is - it has absolutely no independent
life of its own.
The moment that setting is devoid of living players,
it becomes like a beautiful human body the moment after
life has ceased.
A scenographer's rendering or model, a beautifully
executed costumer's design, also becomes only records of
intent.
They may be even works of art on rare occasions but there is no theatrical life here.
A master craftsman may never even achiev!! the high
level of great creative art and still by the force and skill of
his or her craftsmanship may be an equally effective member of the creative team.

Now the union finally coaxed us into joining them as
"master-journeymen". They did and still do protect us
from unpaid fees and we now enjoy health and retirement
benefits and minimum design fees. Students wanting the
advantages of union protection are forced to take a rather
strict examination of their ability to make clear accurate
working drawings, lighting plots, practical costume designs
and expert renderings. But the one very vital tradition
dating back through the ages, that of recognizing and insisting on a system of apprenticeship to guarantee the
high level of their craft for the future generation has
been omitted.
In the early 1930's, a growing number of American
Universities started giving courses in the dramatic arts playwriting, acting, theatre history, stage directing and
the crafts of scenography. Now a very large proportion of
the students working for master degrees and even some
doctorate of fine arts - became themselves teachers and
historians and go on to teach the theory of scenography.
But with a union forbidding the invaluable apprenticeship
system plus a vastly expanding number of university
courses offering degrees in scenography, costume design
and, unfortunately in my opinion, separate courses in
lighting, we have a system that does not enforce enough
basic training in the prime fundamental needs of all
artists.
The fundamental difference between the academic
training and the professionally trained designer, lies in
two facts. (1) Even the most gifted student must receive
early, even In the teenage years mastering his craft as
draftsman, painter and full knowledge of design, ornament and styles. This most essential and basic fluency in
his craft simply cannot be fully achieved and integrated
within the average academic curriculum aimed at attaining a degree. The second reason that most academic train-

In over 300 stage productions which I have designed, I
count only a handful in which the high level of playwrit-

Continued on

22

SPRING,1976

THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

' , .. ' . , ' . Page 38

I

USITT

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1976

Contents
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