Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - 11

A SCENOGRAPHER'S WORK: JOSEF SVOBODA'S
DESIGNS, 1971-1975
JARKA M. BURIAN

©

SUNY AT ALBANY
1976 by Jarka M. Burian

Professor Burian spent the academic year, 1974-75, on leave in Prague. The following article was written in the spring of
1975 and examines Josef Svoboda's work through that period. Unless indicated otherwise, the photographs seen herein are
the work of Dr. Jaromi: Svoboda. [Ed.]
Joseph Svoboda has designed over forty productions
raphy as a dynamic, changing reflection of evolving stage
since the end of the 1970-71 season, when the last survey
action (rather than as a fixed container or static image of
of his scenography was made. 1 Approximately half of
that action), he has made much less use of kinetic stage
these productions have been staged in Prague's National
scenery of the kind made memorable in such previous
Theatre, with the remainder scattered over nearly a dozen
productions as Romeo and Juliet (1963), the Brussells
theatre centers in Europe and the United States. He has
Hamlet (1965), or Owners of the Keys (1962). On the
continued to divide his efforts between the musical and
other hand he has in several productions achieved striking
results with bold combinations of purely architectonic
the dramatic stage, creating over twenty settings for opera
elements and lighting, recalling earlier productions like
or ballet, and only somewhat less than that number for
The Anabap tists (1968), Sicilian Vespers (1969), or
plays. Even a brief consideration of his recent productions
Oedipus (1963), but evolving toward increased metadiscloses that his fertility of invention is as marked as ever
phoric abstraction. As a final preliminary observation, I
and that he continues to work with a wide range of
would note the almost entire absence of scenography
scenographic possibilities from the simplest, most austere
involving the principle of theatre in theatre of the kind
settings to elaborate, complex spectacles. Particularly
found in The Love of Three Oranges (1963) or the Prague
evident has been his ability to derive fresh theatrical
Don Giovanni (1969). Needless to say, all such brief,
applications from the means at his disposal: space,
overall statements of tendencies need qualification, as will
lighting, architectonic elements and movement, as well as
soon be evident when particular productions are conspecial instruments and materials, many of which he himsidered. Nevertheless, I believe that these tendencies are
self has helped to develop. Indeed, Svoboda's invenworth notice, and I think that they have something in
tiveness and command of innovations in optics, eleccommon, something which may help to account for their
tronics, chemistry, and mechanics sometimes obscures his
appearing in Svoboda's work during this most recent four
underlying aim as an artist of the stage: the creation of
year period. But I shall withhold such speculation until I
stage poetry with the assistance of all the means made
have provided specific illustrations of the range of
available to him by modern science and technology. This
2
Svoboda's scenography since the summer of 1971.
is Svoboda's way of trying to break away from outdated
The scenographic technique that has marked more of
scenic traditions and to make theatre-or at least scenogSvoboda's work since 1971 than any other has been that
raphy-genuinely contemporary. His often expressed goal
has been to make of scenography a flexible, precise,
of projections. In fact, his recent work may perhaps best
responsive instrument. The ultimate concern, however, is
be examined on the basis of a division between those
not the instrument but the end it serves, the living work
productions relying fundamentally on projections and
of art on the stage.
those that either eliminate or use them only as incidental
Before describing specific examples of Svoboda's work
supplements to other scenographic techniques.
since 1971, I should like to note a few general tendencies
In considering Svoboda's work with projections we
that characterize his productions during this period. First,
might recall an observation of his from 1958:
in terms of continuity, Svoboda has in no way departed
[projections] are capable of great development
from his distinctly non-literal, non-representational
because they are supported by constant new
approach to the stage setting. Moreover, his primary
discoveries in optics, lighting instruments, proconcern has continued to be the creation of dramatically
jection screens, and lighting techniques. 3
expressive stage space. On the other hand, in contrast to
To this list of contributing causes he should have added
his prior work, his recent scenography has made relatively
the creative imagination of a designer or director, for what
little use of multi-screen projection techniques dramatis remarkable is the range and variety of dramatic purically integrated with live action, of the kind evident in
poses which Svoboda has made projections serve.
Their Day (1959), Soldaten (1969), or The Last Ones
Constantly discovering additional variables within the
(1966). This polyekran or Laterna Magika principle seems
nature and function of the projected image and the
to have been phased out, at least temporarily, in favor of
surface on which it is projected, he has developed the
sophisticated projection techniques that employ more
technique of stage projection to such a state that it has
generalized, often abstract projected images as a backsucceeded painted scenery. "Scenery by means of lighti ng
and projections instead of paint is the future because the
ground or supplement to onstage action rather than as an
individual artist can really create what he wants and then
integrated "performer" in such action. Similarly, although
have it projected. He can convey his signature and have it
much of his work still exhibits the principle of scenog-

I USITT

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THEATRE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY

SUMMER. 1976

11



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1976 - 5
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