Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - 13

MULTIPLEX
AND
PROJECTED
HOLOGRAMS
by Robed Howell

Only since 1972, with the development of white light integral holograms by T. H. Jeong and Lloyd Cross, has holography become inexpensive and practical enough to be considered for large scale commercial enterprises. Primary
users of the medium tend to be people associated with advertising and marketing. Cost has been the limiting factor, but
with advances in the technology, and increased competition,
the prices are coming down at a very rapid rate. Several years
ago it would have cost several thousand dollars to have an
original hologram made, but with the use of the multiplexing
process this cost has been dropped to just a few hundred
dollars. Even at these prices, though, tight budgeted theatre
organizations can ill afford to experiment with a medium that
presents many technological difficulties in its use.
Many types of holograms may eventually find their way into
the entertainment field, but two types in particular should
lead the way for use in the theatre: multiplex and projected.
Both have their own particular problems, especially projected
holograms, but both show growing signs of promise.

Multiplex Holograms
By definition the multiplex is not a true hologram, but is a
second-generation hologram created by the use of 35mm
film. The introduction of 35mm film into the process has
greatly expanded the opportunities for putting different subjects on holograms. A relatively simple process is used in
producing multiplex holograms. First, the subject to be filmed
is placed on a turntable in front of a stationary camera. (The
relationship may be reversed, moving the camera around a
stationary object.) Rotation of the object should be at a constant speed, about % rpm, or at the speed necessary to
expose about three frames per degree of rotation. Next, the
35mm film is transferred to holographic film (Fig. 1). Each
frame is exposed onto the holographic film and becomes a
1mm line with virtually no "dead space" between each exposure. After all frames are transferred to the holographic
film, it is developed and bleached to eliminate the inter-

ference lines that are a part of all holograms. Finally, the
viewing is done right through the film itself, using a normal
incandescent bulb for illumination (Fig. 2). Each eye will perceive different lines on the film, resulting in a view of the same
object from different angles. This result, much like an old
stereoscope, gives the picture its 3-D quality. Then, by setting
the film on a turntable, or by simply walking around it, the
motion in the film can be perceived.
Even though all the filming is done with black and white
film, color will be apparent in viewing the multiplex hologram.
T his is the result of a prismatic effect as the light used for
viewing passes through the film. Another effect immediately
apparent is the limited viewing plane. This feature is one of
the main problems that needs to be overcome before this
type, and in fact all types, of hologram can be viewed by large
audiences. Because of the manner in which multiplex holograms are produced they have no vertical parallax. Parallax
for this type of hologram is only present in the plane of
rotation. Since the human eye views objects without vertical
parallax as far less distorted than objects without horizontal
parallax, all multiplex holograms are being made without
vertical parallax.
Use of this type of hologram in the theatre presents another
technical problem-size. Since holograms serve as their own
"projectors," their size is limited to commercially available
film. Currently, these limits are nine inches in height and the

"There ha ve been recent indications that the ba rrier 0 f size, at
least, may be beginning to
crumble. "

Robert Howell is production supervisor for the School of Fine Arts at University of California at Irvine, chairman of the Committee on
Holography of US ITT's Engineering Commission, and a free-lance designer.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1978 - 5
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