Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 12

twenty; the majority of work is done by hand. Of necessity,
portions of the work are jobbed out-wire frames, for example. During last year's construction period, when 250
headdresses were built for the circus, Lucy and her crew also
worked on millinery for movies, opera and television.
The problems involved in constructing circus headgear are
not the usual difficulties faced by milliners. In use for two
years of vigorous touring, the headdresses must be packable,
heat and humidity resistant, and generally bear up under
rough treatment. Of course, they must also be lightweight and
comfortable to wear. Through constant experimentation, overcoming failures, Ms. Bonavita has developed methods that insure non-collapsible durable hats. She found, for instance,
that two-ply buckram wilted in the heat and humidity, yet
heavily shellacked canvas was too weighty. Caning, however,
faced with one-ply buckram to cover the holes, turned out to
be an ideal solution-lightweight but sturdy, and fairly impervious to adverse weather. Cane cannot be blocked but must
be slashed and cut to shape, then glued. Many headdresses
are built on light wire frames covered with flexible buckram,
then with fabric and all that wonderful glitz.
Feathers and all projective trims have to be easily removable for packing. A pocket is constructed in each hat to receive the feathers or other trim; the pocket must be an exact
fit to hold the added decoration without any additional fastenings. The lush and colorful but terribly expensive feathers are
generally wired to insure retention of the required shape. Uncurled plumes decorate the headpieces since curled feathers
straighten out in humid climates. Balancing the huge headdresses is a problem-although they are light in weight, the
immense height and width require perfect balance. "Girls riding elephants," said Bonavita, "want to hang on to the elephants, not their hats!"
Bonavita creates hats for the animals as well. Elephant hats
are backed with heavy canvas so their rough hides will not
damage the delicate fabrics. Since elephants consider feathers a tasty dish, they must be kept out of reach of their trunks.
Lucy described an unfortunate experience with another type
of animal, donkeys in this case. After attiring the donkeys in
newly built straw hats, what appeared to be affectionate nuzzling was actually the donkeys feasting on each other's fashionable bonnets. One can imagine the problems that would
arise in fitting and measuring an elephant or donkey.
The distinctive, elaborate decoration of the typical circus
headgear requires painstaking and tedious sewing, as well as
perfect workmanship. Spangles are sewn by hand, individually, so that if one is torn off the rest will not follow. Punch-in
jewels and mirrors, purchased by the thousands, are attached
by machine. To prevent wear and tear, edges are finished with
rhinestone banding. In addition, wires support most projecting
decoration. Even ribbons are faced, wired, and lacquered to
prevent drooping and fraying. One of the final steps in this
complex operation is to mount the completed headdress on a
heavily sized felt base, which allows for easy fitting and comfortable wearing.
The amount of work required to construct one headpiecethey are perfectly finished inside and out-is staggering, as is
the amount of money involved; one costume may cost $3000
or more. To organize the construction period, Bonavita usually
attacks the opening number first, then smaller sets of hats and
finally the individual numbers, each hat taking several working
days to build. The job that Lucy begins in July is not completed until December when she travels to Florida for five
weeks of final fittings, aided by a locally hired crew.
What happens to all these costumes? They are worn for
one year, sent back for refurbishing, worn for another year
and then discarded.D
Lois Garren is a costume designer and teaches at Stephen F.
Austin State University in Texas.
10

Theatre Design & Technology

Death,
Destruction,
and Detroit
at the Schaubuhne
am Halleschen Ufer·
by Volker Butzmann
Two months after we had successfully concluded the premiere of Gross und Klein (Big and Little) at the Central Cinema
Company Film Studios in Berlin-Spandau, Robert Wilson's
Death, Destruction, and Detroit, a love story in sixteen scenes,
was presented at the SchaubUhne am Halleschen Ufer. For
the first time in quite a while a proscenium stage was to be
used. Death, Destruction, and Detroit is divided into two acts
of eight scenes each, a prolog, and an epilog, consisting of
action occurring at what appears to me to be randomly selected sites, and with dialog consisting of banal snatches of
sentences. The sound was deliberately distorted by the use of
microports and blended-in tape recordings.
A particular difficulty was creating substitute flies. We
solved the problem by using a twenty-piece triangular lattice
truss 13.80 meters long and 40 em in diameter. This truss
consisted of three tubes each 34 mm in diameter, reinforced
with 10 mm square tubing. At both ends a 40 mm precision
bore tube was concentrically attached with 40 x 12 iron spacers with split bearings.
A geared chain drive consisting of a 5 mm thick chain and a
gear system with 18.5 mm pitch and 31 teeth and a cast iron
40H7 boring grooved in accordance with German Industrial
Standard DIN 6885 with a 408 mm external diameter and a
365 mm pitch diameter was attached to a 40 mm shaft. The
counterpart was attached to the stage floor with angle-iron
mounts. Here, too, there was a geared chain drive consisting
of a 5 mm thick chain and a gear system with 18.5 mm pitch,
15 teeth, and an ungrooved Model 132 cast iron 12H7 boring
with a 200 mm external diameter and 177 mm pitch diameter.
An A6 chain belt [German Industrial Standard DIN 766], with
18.5 mm pitch was attached which was to be pulled manually
requiring two stagehands--one to pull and one to keep a foothold on the chain belt. The backdrop was 12 meters wide and
approximately 6.50 meters high.
* Reprinted from BtJhnentechnische Rundschau (August, 1979), pp.
19-20.

USITI /Summer, 1980



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 12
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 16
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 18
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