Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 28

examination of the esthetic and artistic advances brought about by
the great pioneers. These include Sir Henry Irving, David Belasco,
Andre Antoine, and the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen in the late nineteenth
century, and Appia, Craig and Max Reinhardt in the early years of the
twentieth. After a look at the development of what might be called
"contemporary lighting technology," he concludes with a chapter entitled, "A View of the Dramaturgy of Light in the Twentieth Century."
In this chapter, he describes-with fair accuracy-the work of Erwin
Piscator, E. F. Burian, Josef Svoboda, Wieland Wagner, and Bertolt
Brecht.
Although his final chapter is useful, particularly for his comments
on the work of Piscator and Burian, Bergman doesn't add much that is
new on the art and practice of Svoboda, Wagner, and Brecht. Admitting that his focus has consistently fallen on European theory and
method, I find it unfortunate that he says nothing about developments
in the English or American theatre nor does he seem to be aware of
the contributions of the likes of Stanley McCandless, Jean Rosenthal,
Norman Bel Geddes, Lee Simonson, Robert Edmond Jones, and Jo
Mielziner. He does acknowledge the recent books of Frederick Bentham and Richard Pilbrow but his text makes no mention of lighting in
the English theatre. Other omissions--felated to contemporary technology-are the ellipsoidal reflector spotlight and just the very briefest account of memory control systems. Oddly enough, he does describe in considerable detail, the development of various lamp types
including the tungsten halogen.
My major criticism of Bergman's book is with the English translation by N. Stedt. While Bergman wrote in his native Swedish, the
English translation is cumbersome and often misleading. In Chapter
Nine, the text refers to Lavoisier's reverberes eflipliques--a unit used
for street lighting-and thereafter the translator insists on using the
term "reverberator" when the word "reflector" is clearly the better,
and more precise, word.
These criticisms notwithstanding, the volume is a noteworthy contribution to theatre history scholarship and should stand as a landmark for its treatment of this vital production element.
While I can find minor faults with Bergman's work and puzzle over
some of the language, these criticisms do not apply to Terence Rees'
book. As with the former volume, Rees deserves high praise for a very
thorough piece of work. Again, it is recommended to anyone interested in the development of the technology of lighting. Unlike Bergman, Rees does not deal with the function of light as an artistic medium. Instead, he sets out to describe the technical elements of all
lighting apparatus used in those years-roughly 1815-1895--when
burning gas was the major source of light. It should be noted here that
the gas used in the nineteenth century was distilled from coal and that
it burned with much more of a yellow flame than today's blue burning
natural gas. For this reason the introduction of gas shortly after the invention of the Argand lamp produced a more intense yellowish-white
light than had been possible with the oil lamps and candles used earlier.
In an early chapter Rees describes the traditional lighting positions
of an early nineteenth-century theatre. There were the floats, footlights that could be mechanically raised or lowered in a slot at the
edge of the forestage, the wing lights or ladders, a vertical strip of
burners placed behind the wings on either side of the stage, the battens, overhead border lights, and other isolated sources--what we
might call "specials"-placed wherever they might be needed and
known as "standards," when used in the vertical position, or
"lengths," when they were used horizontally.
In the following chapters, Rees describes the invention and subsequent development of the lime or oxy /hydrogen light. I found this
chapter one of the most fascinating in the book for several reasons.
First, the device, in its early theatrical utilization, was cumbersome,
complicated and unless handled very carefully, dangerous for the operator and for others backstage. Secondly, because most stage technicians are good at improvising a better way to make something work
more efficiently there were constant improvements and ever increased usage. The "limes" continued to be used for follow spotting
and effects work in English provincial theatre well into the twentieth
century. In its earliest form in mid-century, the leather bags containing
the oxygen and hydrogen were placed between squeeze boards
which were then weighted enough-with extra counterweight or
two--to force the gases out through separate (!) tubes to the light's
burner. Placement of the bags and their weighting was crucial if the
gas supply was to be constant enough to keep a steady flame burning. As time passed, iron and steel cylinders for the two gases were
introduced. These could be filled to higher pressures ensuring a
steady supply of the gases.

26

Theatre Design & Technoluyy

Much of Rees' research has turned up this sort of intriguing detail
which makes the reading of the book a positive delight; particularly if
one is interested in the history of stage technology.
Ensuing chapters cover the Electric Carbon Arc, first used on the
English stage in 1848 as a flood light in the pantomine Bluff King Hal;
or Harlequin and the Enchanted Arrow at the Princess's theatre, early
uses of the magic lantern along with veils (scrims) and dissolving
views, where two or more lime or gas projectors were cross faded to
produce moving images. It is surprising, to this reviewer, at least, that
many of the devices widely used today for "effects" were developed
around the middle of the nineteenth century. The beam projector, or
lensless spotlight, was originally devised as an improved method of
utilizing the carbon arc for "spotting" purposes in 1849 by a French
engineer, DuboscQ.
After his delineation of light sources and what we would call "instruments," Rees devotes a chapter to the duties of the gas men who
not only operated the "gas plate" during performances but also had
responsibility for installing and maintaining the gas lines to all parts of
the theatres in which they were employed. Following this account, he
covers the many types of accidents caused by the plethora of open
flame burners in use at the time and the hazards of the by-products of
the constant combustion; excessive heat, the smoke, and the sooty
deposits produced by the constantly blazing gas burners. They
needed an OSHA type of regulatory agency then as we do now.
His final chapters cover the introduction of electric light as a substitute for gas. The first major London theatre to rely solely on electric
light for illumination was the Savoy built by Richard D'Oyly Carte in
1881. Though the theatre was completely electrified, it was also
equipped with gas and when the generators weren't Quite ready for
their assigned task for the opening night of Palience on October 10,
1881. gas light was used for illuminating the stage. The generators
were in full operation by the following December when Patience was
restaged with new costumes, scenery and makeup.
The new type of light was an instant success. For one thing, it was
as easy to fade or intensify as gas and secondly, it was immeasurably
safer in its operation. As a commentator noted at the time, "Its importance for the development of scenic art can scarcely be overrated."
Rees brings his volume to an end with a final chapter entitled, "Too
Much Light?" It is a fitting conclusion to a most intriguing and revealing study. Near the end of the chapter in a discussion of lenses he
writes:
The lens has made modern stage lighting what it is. Yet before its
introduction ... much was possible in the way of making an attractive stage picture. The system which allowed only a raising or
lowering of lights, with or without color mediums, nevertheless
permitted by means of the gas plate the lighting at different intensities of areas roughly corresponding to upstage and downstage.
In the absence of special effects calling for the use of
canvas-and-gauze sky cloths and other material adjuncts to
lighting practice of the day, and when they were not content with
plain lighting, the Victorians added interest to their stage pictures by means of contrasts.
The book is one that should be on the shelf of every scenographer
and lighting designer. With Bergman's excellent overview, Rees' work
is required reading for those of us who wish to know how we have gotten to where we are.
Tom Watson

University of Delaware

Arts Administration; How to Set Up and Run Successful Nonprofit
Arts Organizations by Tem Horwitz. Chicago: Chicago Review
Press, Inc., 1978, ISBN 0-914090-4 7-X, 256 pp., $15.00 cloth.

Out of the growing number of do-it-yourself books on arts administration, Horwitz' rather slim volume is clearly one of the best short
studies about the nitty-gritty of helping our more creative brethren
"do their thing." Perhaps this is because the contents come straight
from the bag of tricks and experiences of someone who has worked
his way up through the myriad of problems and frustrations associated with most new artistic ventures. Over half of this book covers the
basics such as boards of directors, grant writing, fund raising, marketing, physical accommodations, and financial management.
Thomas Leavens, a lawyer and arts enthusiast, then examines the legal Questions which relate to nonprofit organizations. And finally we

USITI /Summer, 1980



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1980 - 44
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2021winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2021winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com