Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 12

LOAD
lb. f

Figure 3

LOAD (y): 1 em. = 200 Ibs.
~~~

S~'LI~"""'J

C '; c

_ELONGATION (x): lem.=lmm.

Figure 4 In the final three specimens, the /-,--+-+-*
scale of the graph was reduced by half. ~
.1
return to its normal configuration without damage. The point
where the graph starts to curve indicates the first deformation of
the clamp. At loads above the point of departure from linearity,
the clamp is being permanently deformed and will never again
return to normal. The ultimate load is of course the highest point
on the graph, after which the load falls off rapidly. The lowest
point where deformation occurs may also be referred to as
"proof load" and the ultimate load as "failure load" or sometimes
"breaking strength."
The clamp that withstood the greatest load was ElectroControls' maleable iron model. It is of heavier construction, the
metal seems to be more ductile (as opposed to brittle) and the
geometry of the clamp is different from all the other designs.
There is a third curve as opposed to the two that most others
have (Fig. 3). The extra curve means that the grip screw has to
be backed off considerably to allow the pipe through the throat,
or in the context of this test, it means that the clamp must be
elongated as much as 13 mm in order that the clamp fall off the
pin.
Three each of the three different lots were tested. The first two
sets were manufactured with a shear pin through the spigot. In
the first lot, the shear pin started to collapse at about 1800 Ibs.,
but it continued to support a considerable load until it was finally
pulled into the flange under a load of 3800 to 3900 Ibs. In the
second lot, the shear pin was not as strong, and failed in the
same manner under a load of 3100 Ibs. (Fig. 4). The third lot was
the new improved version, with the spigot tooled so that it had a
button on the top. All three examples in this lot exceeded a load
of 4000 Ibs. before the cast portion failed. At that load a minute
fracture was visible and the clamp slipped on the pin. It had
however, only been elongated about 7 mm, not enough that it
could really slip off a pipe.
It is not only the ultimate loads that are impressive, but also
their consistency. The clamps of the first lot failed because of
the shear pin, but clearly the castings of even those samples
were capable of supporting the same sort of load as those of the
third lot.
The Kliegl clamps were the most consistent. The average
ultimate load was 2230 Ibs., however with only one exception
(which will be dealt with later) all the test results were within a
range of less than 400 Ibs. The proof load was even more
consistent and averaged 1540 Ibs. (Fig. 6). All but one of the
clamps bent through the spine to an elongation of about 6 or 7
mm, at which point the clamp fell off the test machine (Fig. 5).
One clamp fractured through the second curve.
Two lots were tested, both of them bearing the identification
Kliegl and the number 1850. The two lots were however, of two

obviously different designs. All of them were used clamps, some
of them being several years old. The differences in performance
noted between the two lots are not great enough to be significant.
The Altman samples showed the greatest variation in results.
The average ultimate load was 1900 Ibs. and the proof load
averaged 1240 Ibs. (Fig. 8). There was considerable variation
ranging over 700 Ibs. but it seems that the ultimate load is not
the main issue here. It is hard to draw conclusions from any set
of load figures regardless of how uniform, if the mode of failu(e is
not consistent. Some of the clamps bent through the second
curve, some of them fractured at the same point and othes had
the shear pin pulled off (Fig. 7). The shear pin failures do prove
one interesting point. The shear pin, while not as strong as a
button spigot, is at least as strong as the casting with which it is
matched.
Berkey Colortran's iron clamp model C12428 had a average
ultimate load of 2720 Ibs. and an average proof load of 1600
Ibs., the results being all reasonably consistent (Fig. 10). The
samples were all new, but were likely of random lots of
manufacture. The material of the Colortran clamp was more
brittle than some of the others, and three of the specimens
fractured through the second curve (Fig. 9). One sample shattered and the two portions of the clamp suddenly and without
warning separated completely. Those specimens that did not
fracture were bent through the second curve.
Several types of clamps are available that bear the Strand
Century name. The ones used in this test had a slightly wider
and more rounded web than other examples, and bore the
raised identification "Century." Half of the test sample was new
clamps, the other half used ones, some of them possibly several
years old. All of them failed by bending through the second
curve (Fig. 11). The average ultimate load was 3000 Ibs. It must
be noted that there was a great deal of variation and inconsistency in the results. Ultimate loads varied from 3820 Ibs. all the
way down to 1970 Ibs. The same sort of variation was evident
with the old and new clamps. The proof load was only slightly
more consistent with the average clamp sustaining 2000 Ibs.
before being deformed (Fig. 12).
The first aluminum clamp tested was that manufactured by
Delta Industries of Toronto. The material is actually an aluminum alloy called Tensalloy and the design is after that of
Century. All of the samples were new and all of them fractured,
as might be expected, through the second curve (Fig. 13). The
average ultimate load was 1520 Ibs. and the average proof load
was 950 Ibs. There was much variation in the results with one
clamp failing at 840 Ibs. (Fig. 14).



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 38
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1981 - 40
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
http://www.nxtbookMEDIA.com