Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 28

Television
Lighting
Design

by Kenneth Palius

Theatre is a three-dimensional medium and the eye adapts
for what it sees. In television or motion picture, it's a two-dimensional medium. That means that as scenic designers and
lighting designers we must embellish that and give it the feeling of a three-dimensional picture. That's one problem.
The next problem, probably the biggest problem we have,
and the one in which the scenic designer has to understand
the limitations of the systems in which we work, is contrast
range. In television, theoretically (and the manufacturers claim
in their brochures), the contrast range is 30 to 1, meaning that
the brightest white in that picture cannot be more than 30
times brighter than the deepest black. In reality it is only 20 to
1. That is pretty narrow when you understand that in the film
medium we have steps going from 100 to 1. As a practical example, if I were lighting a scene--on location or in the studio-in film I could just throw a little light in the corner and
know that the detail in that corner would be picked up and the
image would be clear enough to recognize on film. If I were
doing this on television, and was not paying attention to the
brightest white or the deepest black in that picture, that little
light in the corner would disappear and you would not even
see the detail.
A typical example would be a very bright background. If the
background is much brighter than skin tones, it is quite possible that the skin tones fall in the bottom steps of the gray
scale and the faces turn dark or black because you are keyed
on the brightest white in the picture. That is extremely critical
when it comes to costumes and scenic design. Scenic elements have to be very carefully thought out; much more so in
television, certainly, than in theatre where the eye adapts.
The eye is a very tricky little instrument. It will fool you. On
the other hand, the camera won't fool you because a camera
cannot rationalize; it reproduces what it sees within the parameters of what it is designed to do. In theatre, you can go
from a bright, bright subject to a dark subject, and even on the
same scene the eye will adapt. The camera does not have the
ability to think, therefore we must do the thinking for it.
It is also extremely important that a scenic designer for
television, and particularly scenic designers coming out of
Kenneth Palius is an award-winning professional lighting director and
Vice President/Director of Technical Operations of Imero Fiorentino
Associates.

26

Theatre Design & Technology

school trained in pure theatre, have some sort of training in
understanding what a photograhic image is: the two-dimensional medium, the problem of scope, lenses, angles, depth of
field. Again, the eye will fool you. In the theatre, you could
have a set going back fifty feet. The eye will focus on the
front; it will also then focus on the back. The camera can't do
that. If you are a lighting designer, you'll say, "I have a depth
of field problem. Okay, then I'll put a lot of light on the set;
therefore I can iris down and increase the optical depth of
field." On the other hand, suppose it's a very somber scene,
with very little light. The iris of the camera has to open up to
give a photographic image; the result is a very shallow depth
of field-the background is completely wiped out, the floor
will be blurred, out of focus, etc. So, if you are thinking of getting into television, get yourself a camera. Play with it. Learn
it. Learn basic optics; it's extremely important.
Another thing in scenery is percentage of reflection. Again,
when we light something in the theatre, the eye will adapt to
the amount of light being reflected off an object. The camera
cannot do that. A typical example: In Bully, (a Broadway show
that was taped and converted to 35mm) on Broadway there
were gold drapes in the background, and a number of the
scenes were very dark, outdoors at night-blue light. It happened to be a very dark gold, an almost mustard colored, velour drape. Try putting blue on that and see what you get. The
eye will say, "Hey, 1 see blue," and accept it. The camera
says, "Gee, I don't see blue, I see mud!"Your eye will say,
"Oh yeah, that's blue; that's nightime." The camera can't do
that. So reflectance is most important. Often with a black material you say, "well, black is going to turn black in the background." It will, if it is velour, if it is a very soft material. Suppose it is a shiny black? It is no longer black, it reflects light.
That's very important. Your eye will say it's black; and your
eye will dismiss some highlights. The camera won't say that;
the camera will say, "Look at those hot spots, all those lights
back there; Oh my goodness gracious, a lot of reflections."
Looks like hell.
These are the things to consider when you convert from the
eye-probably the most beautiful optical instrument ever designed-to the camera. The eye has the brain attached to it,
and it rationalizes; the camera can't. So you've got to think
way ahead for it. And avoid the pitfalls.D

Television Design
Questions and Answers
Following the presentations by the four panelists, there was a question and answer period. Aside from the three participants whose remarks are published above, the comments of the fourth panelist, Dick
Weise, are included below. Mr Weise is Art Director at KTVU, Channel
2, in Oakland, California, and is the founder and President of the
Broadcast Designers' Association.
Q:
What experiences or expertise do you look for in a young person coming to you, wanting to break into the business? Is there anything in particular you look for in their portfolios or backgrounds?
Mr. Palius: I see an awful lot of young people looking for jobs,
young students out of school, and let me say what impresses me: do
they know anything about photography? It's an optical medium, and
you've got to know the limitations of it. If you don't know, it's a disaster. I look at that, and I've learned, through a lot of scar tissue, that it's
a people medium. While we set up lights, per se, we really are selling
people. And the guy or gal who can sell me, if he does a helluva job of
showing me a portfolio of his work, of her work, now, what kind of personality has she got? Can she or he sell himself? Because if you can't,

(continued on p. 52 ... )
USITT /Spring, 1981



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1981 - 6
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