Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 26

mixing desk although the original Broadway production, mounted the previous year, was still using a bank of small rotary
control mixers.
I started my career as a theatre sound designer in 1958, but it
remained something of a one man crusade for at least ten years
when, largely through the advent of the printed circuit board, a
breed of audio control equipment emerged which was at once
technically more sophisticated, of a higher overall standard of
performance, and, most importantly, reasonably priced. The
composer, the musical orchestrater, and the sound designer
now had more creative freedom. This they began to use,
although all too often abuse, to the detriment of both the
performance and the eardrums of the audience.
As an example of this increasing reliance upon audio technology I shall take one London theatre, Her Majesty's, where I
designed the sound over a period of seven years for a succession of eight musicals. The first of these was Fiddler on the Roof
in 1969 which used a total of nine microphones. Four years later
the show Applause had sixteen microphones plus a wireless for
Lauren Bacall. This was followed by Pippin, with twenty-two
microphones which were necessary because certain sections of
the orchestra required amplification. In 1974, in the same
theatre, the producers of a nameless musical, requested an
assortment of six wireless, eight hand-held, twenty orchestral
and ten general pick-up microphones making a glorious total of
forty-four channels. The show became throttled with audio cable
after a few unhappy performances and sank with all hands. Mind
you, the year before that I used eighty microphones for Jesus
Christ Superstar and that ran for eight years and is currently still
on a National tour. But that is a somewhat unusual case.
The trend of the last three or four years is very much to
designate a microphone for each instrument in the orchestra,
attach a wireless system to each principal performer and
liberally sprinkle the stage with general pick-up microphones for
the rest of the company. This means that it is not unusual to be
handling anything between forty and sixty channels for a
straightforward musical. But reinforcement is only one aspect of
theatre sound. There has been a similar increase in the sophistication required for the playback and manipulation of recorded
sound effects.
Unfortunately, the ideal layout of controls for handling microphones and for handling recorded sound effects are at variance.
With the one the need is for a great number of input channels
(microphones) controlled in selectable groups to a limited number of outputs (amplifiers/loudspeakers); whereas the demand
for sound effects is for a limited number of input channels (tape
playback) mixed to a much greater quantity of amplifier/loudspeaker outputs. There are on the market many mixers suitable
for sound reinforcement and PA in the theatre, whereas only a
few specialist manufacturers have endeavored to produce variable output control for sound effects. This usually takes the form
of a matrix of variable crosspoints providing a bewildering array
of faders, the sight of which can send the cold clammy hand of
fear clutching at the heart of even the most adept of sound
operators.
In a repertoire theatre housing a permanent company-such
as the National Theatre of Great Britain or the new London
home for the Royal Shakespeare Company in the Barbican
Centre-it is necessary to provide a mixing console which will
cater to all forms from classical drama to rock opera. Both of
these companies often mount productions with very ambitious
sound plots which incude quite sophisticated balancing of offstage orchestras mixed with many tracks of recorded sound
routed to a plethora of loudspeakers around the stage and
auditorium.
The control systems for the National and the Barbican Theatres were originally conceived some eleven years ago when,
as is the case with such large public building contracts, specifications and budgets had to be produced and approved at an
early stage in the building schedule. For the two main theatres in
the National we specified broadcast quality mixers including
three-band equalization, input sensitivity, two auxiliary sends,
and PFL on each channel; all of which raised many an eyebrow

at the time. Even we wondered secretly whether we might not be
overspecifying. Thank goodness we stuck to our guns. Each
mixer had sixteen microphone/line input channels (it seemed
adequate then) selectable to any combination of six submasters. Then there was an output section with two presets
each comprising twenty circuits. Both presets had six colorcoded pushes per circuit for routing to the sub-master but the
lower preset also incorporated a fader on each circuit.
The National Theatre opened its doors in 1974. Meanwhile
the building of the Barbican Centre was suffering from various
problems which put the whole project severely behind schedule.
This gave us time to make revisions to the sound control. The
main requirement after the first year of operation at the National
was for more sub-groups and more outputs for control of sound
effects. The input side was not too inhibiting as a separate submixer could always be fed into the system for shows requiring
additional channels for microphones. There was enough money
in the budget for these extra facilities but our worry was that the
projected twenty-four input channels routing to ten sub masters
to twenty-six outputs plus duplicate preset channels constituted
more than 850 switching functions. The later addition of another
six inputs, for which the mixer is designed, brings the total up to
nearly 1000 switches-a daunting if not impossible prospect for
manual operation under the often harassing conditions of a live
performance.
So the decision was taken to add some form of memory
control to the final specification and on the mixing console
especially designed for the Barbican theatre the switching
functions are controlled by a microcomputer which can memorize and store 199 cues (or combinations of switching). Sequences of cues are set up via a small key pad which is similar
to that of a calculating machine. In the unlikely event of the
memory failing, the console can be operated manually by
means of banks of push buttons associated with the input and
output sections of the mixer. The routing state of the mixer can
be seen at any time by means of LED illumination of these push
buttons. The preset state or the next cue can also be viewed by
pressing an appropriate button.
We were keen to dispense altogether with the traditional
routing push buttons relying entirely upon the key pad and a
video display. But theatre technicians, probably quite rightly,
move forward with caution. The RSC sound department is very
enthusiastic at the prospect of memory routing but they are
insistent upon also having the old familiar controls laid out in the
old familiar way-just in case.
While the Barbican sound console is a theatrical first in Great
Britain it is also only a first step, for although memory sound
consoles are currently in use in some recording studios the
basic concept of tying the memory information to a tape of fixed
duration does not apply to the theatre. The memory function in a
studio is specifically for rebalancing a finite recording, whereas a
live show will, by its very nature, contain substantial differences
in timing and energy at every performance. We are still a long
way in the theatre (or are we?) from memorizing proportional
routing of inputs to outputs and from the ultimate goal of
proportional routing with timed fades.
And then what about all those boring tone controls and
auxiliary functions which take up so much space on the panel
and are mostly used as preset functions? Similarly, is it really
necessary to have so many operational faders when, for example, in an orchestral balance one seldom wishes, or indeed is
capable of dealing with other than groups of preset channels?
Oh yes, there is a long way to go but the technology is there. All
we need now are the resources. 0
The Console in the Barbican Theatre with all its facilities was
specified by Theatre Projects Consultants Ltd. and built by
Rank Strand Sound. The entire electronic design including the
audio interface with the computer and all the metalwork was
designed within the Theatre Projects Group.
David Collison is Director of Theatre Projects Ltd. of Great Britain. He
has been sound consultant to over fifty West End musicals, and
designed sound systems for theatres around the world.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 42
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 44
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