Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 32

quate time on sound, base your needs on the amount of sound
you use and the number of people who will benefit, educationally or otherwise. Synthesizers run in cost from about $800 (1981
prices) for some of the small performance units, to as much as
$18,000 for some of the deluxe patchables. (New digital devices, which do every1hing including printing out music, can run
as high as $40,000; but these are far more than most theatres
and sound designers could use at present.) Remember that the
lowest-cost units are likely to have a number of limitations and
will perform only the most basic functions of synthesis. Complete control of the ADSR and the filter is essential or the device
will be nearly worthless for theatre sound application. Instruments in the $1000 and $1500 range will probably fit the needs
of most theatres for at least the simplest kinds of synthesized
effects.

Synthesizer Capabilities
First of all, a synthesizer will produce only what it is instructed
to. That means that learning to use the device well is important.
People often complain about the lack of realism in synthesized
sounds, yet good synthesists can produce timbres that are
almost indistinguishable from "real" sounds. Imitative synthesis
is a matter of understanding the physical properties of sound
and knowing how to duplicate those properties. As in scene
painting, lighting, and costuming, nothing will do the work for
you-the synthesizer is only a tool.
On the other hand, getting a variety of gunshots, explosions,
steam engines, jet planes, and other sounds that are based on
white noise, is not a terribly difficult thing to do. Imagine being
able to produce a gunshot and make it sound as nearby or as far
away as desired! (Remember that no sound system can really
reproduce the effect of a gunshot or explosion that is supposed
to be immediately at hand. Blank-shooters and gunpowder will
be required for such sounds for years to come.)
Start with the noise source, and connect it to an ADSRcontrolled amplifier. Set the ADSR for a fast attack and decay
and a moderate release and you have the basis for pistol and
gun shots. Filter some of the higher frequencies and you get
something more like a cannon. Striking the keys rapidly will give
a barrage of shots.
Connect the noise source through the filter and set the
amplifier to produce constant output (no ADSR). Manipulating
the manual controls for cut-off frequency and emphasis can
simulate a jet flyover. Similar operation can also produce
various qualities of wind, from a breeze to a gale. (Remember, in
this regard, that wind is not always the sound of air turbulence.
Gentle breezes are more often the result of foliage rustling.) Surf
can also be produced by this method, except that surf, to be
realistic, needs depth. Usually, we hear breakers rolling in on
several areas of a beach at once, giving an expanse of sound,
not just a simple crash of one wave at a time. To produce surf,
set the manual control for cut-off low; then use a slowly varying
(subaudio) triangle waveform from one of the oscillators for
voltage control of the cut-off frequency. Feed the output to one
track of a multitrack tape recorder and record. Now go back and
rerecord on a different track, making sure that the peaks of the
surf noise do not synchronize with those on your first track.
Playing back the two tracks through separate channels with
speakers located to each side of the stage will give an illusion of
surf rolling in on a long stretch of beach.
The noise source is not the only part of the synthesizer which
can be made to produce sound effects. The tonal functions have
a number of useful applications. A very convincing European
police siren can be made by modulating one or more oscillators
with a very low frequency square wave. Tonal sources can be
made to synthesize air horns, steam whistles, standard sirens,
and even some bird and insect noises (although bird and insect
sounds will usually be more realistic if taken from actual

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recordings). Rapid modulation of the oscillators (by another
oscillator) makes a variety of bell sounds, all the way from small
hand bells to huge cathedral chimes. Small changes in tuning
can make these bells sweet and harmonious or harsh and evil
sounding.
Of course, the basic purpose of a synthesizer is to make
music. For more than one-part music, you need a multitrack,
synchronous tape recorder. If you have such equipment, you
may even be able to create special music for your productions.
Musical training is necessary to do this, of course, and the
quality of music produced is almost inevitably going to sound
terribly electronic at first. With practice, improvement is possible.
The basic technique is to record the first line of music on one
track of the tape machine. Then set that track to "Sync," and go
back and play the second line, recording on a second track (set
to "Ready" or "Record" or "Input"-whatever designation your
machine uses) while listening to the first line on the original
track. This process continues, building up track by track, until
the whole piece of music is completed. The more facile you
become, the more uses you can find for this application of the
synthesizer. Flute and clarinet sounds are fairly easy to produce; some string-like sounds are relatively simple, and harpsichord sounds are not difficult. Low string and brass sonorities,
on the other hand, are not easy, so do not expect to just run up
and turn out some quick brass choir pieces for your next
performance of A Man for All Seasons.
These are some of the services that a synthesizer can peform
in a theatre. As with any production technique, learning and
practice are essential, but I have found the rewards to be great.
In fact, since we acquired it, there has hardly been a show at
Ithaca College in which the synthesizer was not used for
something. (We have even used it to ring prop telephones on
the stage!) Synthesis is a useful technique which I believe will

John Bracewell, a professor at Ithaca College, presented a series of synthesizer workshops at the 1981 USITT convention.
30

Theatre Design & Technology

USITTlWinter, 1981



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 35
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 37
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 44
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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