Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 6

Sound

as
Special Issue on Sound

Design

An Introduction
Quantum leaps in the sophistication of audio equipment have
been made in the past decade-prodded, no doubt, by the
demands of rock bands and the recording industry. Theatre
audiences, however, have yet to hear these advances. Sound
remains the weak link in the technological chain of theatre. As
recently as March of this year, the lead article of a New York
Times Arts and Leisure section stated, "No matter how sophisticated the equipment, the nature of the beast is such that honest
sound is ... impossible to achieve." The response to the article
was almost unanimously sympathetic.
The attack on theatre sound is not new but it raises some
important questions-most intriguingly, what is "honest" sound?
Video presents us with electronically reproduced visual images.
We do not consider this "dishonest." Every time we listen to
records, television, film, or even most live concerts we are
listening to electronically reproduced, transmitted, or enhanced
audio. Yet we accept these without question. In part, of course,
the equipment involved in these media tends to be of higher
quality than theatre sound systems, but in part it has to do with
expectations. We expect the human voice in the theatre to be
"pure," even if this means that the performer is speaking louder
or more exaggeratedly than normal to compensate for acoustics
or the conventions of the stage. Perhaps theatre sound is as
"honest" as visual images in the theatre-we just expect something else.
Although John Bracewell's article on sound design touches on
the psychology of perception, it is a vast scientific area we simply
cannot cover adequately. What we can and do cover is what sort
of equipment is available for the theatre and how it is used and
misused. Part of the problem is the lack of knowledge about the
use of the modern technology. Tom Hayes, for instance, discusses the proper placement of microphones for accurate sound
pickup.
There is no question that even theatres with the most advanced state-of-the-art equipment still provide poor sound. We
hope that the information in this issue, perhaps in conjunction
with our earlier sound issue (Fall 1979), will help end the abuses
that cause this situation.
Along with the development of equipment, Bracewell suggests
that a new member be added to the design community-the
sound designer. Too often sound is looked upon as "only a few
sound effects," which some technician tapes from an effects
record and calls "the sound." Yet, no matter how simple the
lights, sets, or costumes, each has a designer. It is time to design
sound as well.
A sound system consists of amplifiers, control boards, speakers, microphones, playback equiment, etc. Since we were not
able to cover all of this, we focused on control systems and
microphones in this issue. On the other hand, Dan Dugan's
description of the New Old Globe installation deals with all
elements in a fairly elaborate system.
We would like to thank David Klepper and Rollins Brook for
their help and advice on this issue. The series on American
designers will continue in the Spring issue.

A.A.
4

Theatre Design & Technology

Art
by John L. Bracewell

Theatre touches us through our two most important sensessight and sound. Humans derive their most useful information
from these two senses, and visual and auditory experiences
almost always elicit some degree of emotional response. In
theatrical production the visual element has long been the most
important aspect while sound has remained relatively primitive
as a theatre art. Today, given the state of electronic audio,
virtually every aspect of sound is readily controllable, and,
accordingly, sound as a design art in the theatre is beginning to
develop.
In order to discuss the design of sound it is necessary to
understand how the senses respond to various stimuli. A
psychological and physiological understanding of perception is
demanded. (As Harold Burris-Meyer once asked me when I was
a student, "How can you design sound if you don't understand
anything about the ear?")
Vision and audition are interacting !!enses, each complementing the function of the other. Functionally, vision is unidirectional, hearing is omnidirectional. Hearing detects the presence and
direction of an event, leading us to turn our eyes toward the
source of the sound. The brain, however, tends to rely upon
visual data for accuracy. Each sense has its particular mode of
processing sensory input. Vision is a simultaneous sense which
perceives visual data as a relatively constant relationship of
whole and parts. Audition is sequential-synthesizing perceptions as events develop through time. Together, the two senses
provide a four-dimensional flow of information about our surroundings.
Of considerable importance to theatre is the fact that both the
eyes and ears can be tricked into delivering erroneous data to



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 2
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - Contents
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