Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 8

noises that are not immediately relevant. Sometimes to add
extra sound is to distract from the central matter of the performance. A part of good design is to know when to embellish and
when to leave well enough alone!
Scenic environment and activity motivate most of the sounds
used in a production, but there is another and more subtle
category of motivation: psychological motivation. Such sounds
arise from the internal thoughts of the characters or from the
audience's anticipation of forthcoming events. For a character to
recall or imagine a sound in such a case is reason enough for
the audience to hear it also. Likewise, if the audience knows that
a particular event is going to happen, tension may be built by
foreshadowing that event with a part or all of its associated
sound.
Use of music as a part of theatrical performance is as old as
theatre. The use of audio to supply music simply adds to the
flexibility of use and the range of music available. For straight
plays, music serves three functions: as incidental music, as
underscore, and as integral effect. Incidental music includes
introductions to acts and scenes, tags, and bridges. Underscore
is the use of music behind action and dialog to extend and
heighten the emotional character of the scene. Integral use
ranges from songs and accompaniments to juke-box tunes and
trumpet fanfares.
Music is a powerful adjunct of dramatic production. It leads
the emotions, heightens tensions, moderates pacing and action,
and its perhaps the most effective force available to the designer
to reinforce psychological motivation. Music deserves special
handling in selection, in editing, and in auditory processing.
Original music can be tailored to production needs and written
for available instruments, but the composer's ability is the
limiting factor on quality. Music from the standard literature may
offer better quality but cannot always be fitted exactly to the
needs of the play. Existing music can be taken from commercial
recordings or performed by local musicians (in accordance with
Copyright Laws). With music, as with all sounds used for
theatrical production, one cannot escape the necessity to provide correct auditory perspective.
Acoustic reinforcement is the use of audio to lift actors' voices
over competing sounds or the acoustical resistance of the
theatre. It is a useful function and one that is becoming
increasingly common. The word "lift" is used deliberately,
because reinforcement should be a lift and not outright crowbar
force. Reinforcement and public address are fundamentally
different! Good reinforcement should be virtually indistinguishable from natural stage sound. Use of reinforcement in no way
relieves actors of the responsibility for correct voice production.
An audio system can only pass along what it receives. As with
computer data processing, "Garbage in-garbage out!"
The idea of reinforcement raises hackles among purists (and,
truly, when one hears some of the abysmal misuses of reinforcement, the purists appear to deserve sympathy). Reinforcement, indeed, may be the most difficult aspect of theatre audio
for a purist to understand. A purist wants to hear the human
voice and not a sound system. So if the sound system is only a
lift, why bother? Teach good projection instead. If it's more than
a lift, who wants it? On the other hand, why should an actor
strain to overcome bad acoustics when audio can help? And for
musicals, what is wrong with a technology that can make
balance easier for both singers and orchestra and certainly for
the audience? In small theatres, where straight plays and small
musicals are standard fare, reinforcement is probably unnecessary. For the commercial theatre, however, the need for reinforcement is simply and compellingly economic: reinforcement
makes hearing possible for larger audiences.
Reinforcement does have artistic uses beyond its basic,
practical role. Such artistic uses do not in any way violate the
nature of the reinforcement system itself, such as constraining it
to reproduce sound effects (which reinforcement systems usually do not do very well). Since reinforcement controls the
6

Theatre Design & Technology

acoustical ambience of the stage to some extent, there is
certainly no problem with using the system to embellish that
ambience when needed to match the visible character of the
setting. Why, for example, shouldn't Dracula's crypt ring with
spooky echoes? Or why can't the mountaintop in Dark of the
Moon sound as wild and barren as it looks? Or reinforcement
could be used as a blending agent to integrate sound effects that
have a difficult auditory character. Some recorded sounds, even
with the best processing, just don't fit well with the live sound of
the stage. Like fractional intermixing of scenic colors to produce
harmony, so a slight bit of reinforcement can help to blend such
tough sounds with actors' voices. Reinforcement also is likely to
be needed in the execution of two other functions of theatre
sound: Vocal Alteration and Vocal Substitution.
Vocal alteration and Vocal Substitution are related functions
that have to do with the occasional need of a role for a strange or
non-human voice. Use of audio can provide both needs. Vocal
Alteration allows a sound system to emphasize or subtract
formants of the actor's voice, or to add phasing, doubling, or
reverberation. A case of such need might be the voices of the
murdered king and queen in Ubu ROi, as they appear to Prince
Bougrelas to urge him to take revenge on Pere Ubu; they could
speak with hollow or slightly reverberant voices without losing
the established vocal character of the role.
Vocal Substitution is an outright trade-off of the actor's natural
voice for sounds that a human could never produce, usually
requiring that the speeches for the role be entirely played from
tape. An Ithaca College production of The Hairy Ape used Vocal
Substitution for the churchgoers in the Fifth Avenue scene. The
director wanted these rich sophisticates to appear emotionless,
impersonal, and so totally removed from Yank's basic human
state that there could be no possible way for him to communicate with them. The churchgoers were costumed in stiff, formal
attire and wore semitransparent, plastic masks. Their dialog,
entirely taped and processed, began with O'Neill's lines ("Dear
Dr. Caiaphas. He is so sincere." "What was the sermon today,
my dear? I dozed off." "About the radicals .... " etc.). The tape
was processed to give a hard, piercing sound matching the cold
sheen of the masks. Then the dialog broke, with the movement,
into antiphonal patterns, the churchgoers moving quasisymmetrically around Yank, as the tape began to add filter-sweeps in
contrary motion. Finally, as the movement turned chaotic the
dialog became an improvisation based on random words and
syllables of the lines, reverse echo and reverberation were
added to the tape. The effect was an almost animalistic din
swirling incoherently about Yank as he literally hurled himself
against the figures, bouncing off without affecting them in the
least.
Mood is a function that involves the design of all other
functions of sound. Motivation, music, vocal qualities-all bear
on the emotive character of a performance at any point. The
examples I have given heretofore all contain an element of
mood as well as an illustration of the particular function under
discussion. Mood is an aspect of theatre with which we all deal,
whether in costumes, scenery, lighting, or direction, so that
elaborate illustration is, perhaps, unnecessary.
Extension of Dramatic Time/Space is a complex function
which involves sound as a carrier of symbolic meaning and
suggestive associations to extend the playwright's message or
the director's interpretation. Any extension in time or space
beyond the immediate involves a leap of imagination and the
ability to conceive of parallel relationships among the people
and events of the play and people and events of other times and
places, real or fictional. Because such associations are largely
personal, attempts to communicate specific meaning usually
fail. Vague allusions are preferable. For safety, any effect meant
to be symbolic or associative should also be fully justifiable in
the context of the production.
In The Effect of Gama Rays on Man-In- The-Moon Marigolds,
Paul Zindel offers two important and useful chances for sound to
USITTlWinler, 1981



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1981 - 44
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