Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 10

one took the total research and development and production costs among all
manufacturers for all memory systems
and subtracted from this the net dollars
received from the sale of those same
systems. the resultant total would be
positive. That is. memory systems overall represent a small "present" to the
purchaser. How else can you account
for the movements within our industry
in which major organizations like Thorn
and Westinghouse have left our business') Or. for the fact that parts and service for your Decor, Vickers. Hub.
Control Devices. Metropolitan. Theatre
Technology Inc .. Frank Adam. Ariel
Davis. Cutler Hammer. Superior
Electric. Skirpan. and Ward-Leonard
systems may be hard to find')
There is, in fact, already a "Flanders Field" of buried memory lighting
control systems. Some started with
sound ideas but the technology to build
them was lacking. Some were the victims
of industry confusion and user
specification tinkering. in which nonessential features and "bells and whistles" complicated what could have been
clean machines. Some were simply made
obsolete because their operational
facilities were inadequate.
I believe that in their present form.
many memory systems are "operator job
security devices'" and "serviceman job
security devices.ยท.. But the facts are that
lighting control memory has allowed the
lighting designer new creative opportunities with cue balances. cue sequences. cue timing. and total instantaneous control over a virtually
unlimited number of such movements
within any required time span; and the
ability to repeat those sequences time

8

Theatre Design & Technology

and time again as well as the ability for
variation from performance to performance when required.
[ feel that current systems tend to
be overly complicated in operation and
lack the easy "hands-on" approach that
would give them more immediacy. make
them more playable, and. I suspect.
more fun. But in querying a group of
lighting designers most of them felt that
the present advances were in the right
direction. One designer thought it would
be fun to stay at home and use his touchtone telephone to set up lighting cues.
Another envisioned a sophisticated console in which the lighting designer
would picture what he wanted and this
image would be translated into a stage
picture. "Put on your lighting cap" is the
way another designer described a similar console. Another designer pointed
out that computer generated video
graphics and image duplicating systems
could allow the designer to "paint with
light" on a high resolution CRT and
have the results translated to the stage
picture via elaborate lighting instruments focused and colored remotely.
I found it interesting that the lighting designers seem enthusiastic about all
the new technology. Even to the extent
that almost one for one they have
learned how to operate the consoles on
their shows. Some of them have been the
most demanding in the design and
modification of the newer memory
systems. They also seemed concerned.
as one designer put it. "that the technical
jock running the console would be a little more interested in running the show
as programmed rather than fudging
around with the cues'" There is. of
course. an argument of exact show
repeatability versus the electrician/board operator being given some
choice and some discretion. You can
argue that th is depends on the operator.
but most lighting designers quite
naturally want their show kept intact. At
best. there is a beautiful relationship
that can occur. and frequently does. in
the marriage of designer and operator.
and the new technology can deepen and
enhance this collaboration.
What has happened in light sources
over this past twenty years') First. the introduction of single-ended and doubleended tungsten-halogen lamps has made
possible better designs for cyclorama
lighting. new designs for Fresnels that
are more compact. some new softlights.
some lightweight open-faced units used
for smaller studios and for remote location work. and some redesigns of ellip-

soidal reflector spotlights principally
using axial lamp/reflector arrangements.
In television and film. particularly
"location" shooting. there is an entire
range of metal-halide Fresnels. Additionally. other metal-halide lamps are
available in ranges of 1000 or more
watts in PAR 64 configurations. with
very intense center beam candela. Still
other halide "arc" lamps have found use
in follow spotlights in all fields: theatre.
television and film.
The 1000 watt very narrow spot
PAR 64 lamp - the staple of the rock
'n' rollers - has gained additional usage
in television lighting. particularly for
sports events. and some limited theatrical effect for punch and for "backlighting" (Svoboda "contra" light). But.
since in theatre the dominant type of
luminaire is the ellipsoidal reflector
spotlight. let's see what happened to that
unit.
When tungsten-halogen lamps were
introduced into ellipsoidals in the early
1960's the lamp manufacturers made
"retrofit" lamps to fit the old existing
prefocus base and bipost base sockets.
Particularly in the medium prefocus and
medium bipost bases which had originally been designed for 250 and 500
watt lamps. lighting practice had forced
these designs into 750 watt and 1000
watt lamp types. To oversimplify the
situation. the combination of instrument. lamp socket and lamp became
"overdriven ...
A new base was also manufactured
for the tungsten-halogen lamp, more
suitable to the relatively small diameter
of the lamp. This small bipost size is
called medium bipin. You may think
that going to this new base would cure
the problem. Unfortunately the new
sockets were not designed as well as
their predecessors. particularly in physical retention of the lamp. These lamps
were also made in a filament form that is
a cylindrically-coiled. coil filament
rather than the older C 13 and C 13D
monoplane and biplane filaments. /\
new type of luminaire. the axial ellipsoidal. was designed around th is new
family of lamps. Unfortunately socket
and lamp base problems are made worse
in this luminaire. By the very nature of
the basic design. the lamp bulb is surrounded by the reflector so that convection cooling is minimized. As a result.
most users of axial ellipsoidals report
shortened lamp life due to overheating.
particularly at the pinch seal of the
tungsten-halogen lamp. We spent a lot
of time on this problem at my firm and
USITI Fall.

198~



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1982 - 36
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
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http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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