Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 18

way to get cars into the third-floor performance spaces. It was
decided that the production would take place in an alley
between the Magic Theatre building and a similar building with
the audience sitting raised on the two sides of what would
become the freeway. A roof was to be built between the two
buildings and the ends enclosed. Because of various problems-particularly engineering and building permits-when the
nearby warehouse became available, we decided to use it and
keep the same spectator-stage relationship.
The warehouse had its own set of problems which designer
Andy Stacklin and technical director Kurt Landisman managed
to solve. First, the acoustics were such that actors could not be
understood. Second, for visual reaons it was necessary to
enclose the performance area; the play was about being stuck,
noi being free in open space. We assumed that if we used the
right materials for our enclosure that we would also solve the
acoustic problem.
The reverberation time in the warehouse (dimensions 574' x
114' x approximately 35') was roughly 5 seconds calculated by
slapping two boards together and with a stop watch measuring
the time it took the sound to become inaudible. Within the
finished enclosure the reverberation time was roughly 1.5
seconds. The enclosure was built across the warehouse at the
end furthest from shore which distanced it from the parking lot,
but put it close to the occasional foghorn.
The seating platforms, constructed of plywood with black cloth
covering the risers, were 40" wide and accommodated ninety
nine upholstered theatre seats-three rows on each side of the
freeway. The light and sound control consoles were placed
under the seating platforms with a view of the performance
space through the riser between the first and second rows.
Because each row was 3' above the one in front of it, railings
were necessary across the entire length of the second and third
rows. After experimenting with wooden railings at various
heights to determine how to make them less of a visual
obstruction, we decided to use 1/4" airplane cable. The cables
were secured at each end with a turnbuckle and supported by 1"
x 3" uprights with eye bolts every 4'. No one throughout the
entire seven week run of the production complained about the
cables as being unsafe or visual obstructions even though for
some members of the audience they were within sightlines.
The steep viewing angle meant that the cars, the highway,
and the concrete embankments became the background
against which the action was seen. Only these elements were
treated scenically, all else was disregarded. But it was important
that these elements take on a hyperreal quality somewhat
similar to a four-color airbrushed automobile advertisement. The
cars, with one exception, were borrowed from the actors and
director. These were highly polished so as to reflect the light.
Even though some of the cars were several years old and one,
for purposes of the script, had numerous dents, in so far as
possible all were made to look as if they were in the showroom
of a new car dealer. The floor of the warehouse was, appropriately, asphalt, but had a used look, so we painted it with Aquatar
to make it look new. All of the details of the roadway were based
on specifications from the California Department of Transportation. The two lanes were delineated by a row of pavement
markers in a pattern alternating four round white ceramic
markers and two square plastic reflectors. These were bought
from the same company that sells them to the State. They were
adhered to the surface with epoxy. Two feet in from the
embankment on each side a yellow line was painted to delineate
the shoulders of the roadway. Before the paint dried, glass
powder was sprinkled on the paint to make it more reflective.
The embankments were constructed to the specified dimensions from 1/8" plywood over 1" x 3" armatures and painted to
simulate concrete.
Patty Ann Farrell lit the space using seven trusses to form a

grid on which instruments were hung before being raised into
place with block and tackle. The flood lights used to light the
seating areas were directed toward the audience so they could
not see into the unlighted performance space until the house
lights went down and the stage lights came up. Act One begins
with the commuters in a morning traffic jam on their way from the
suburbs to work in the city. It is a foggy spring morning which
gradually clears. Act Two takes place the following fall during an
evening traffic jam as the commuters are on their way home
from work. As the act begins the rain has just stopped. The
highway and cars are wet (having been sprayed during intermission) and the windshield wipers are on. By the time the play
ends it is dark and the only sources of light are the interior lights
of the cars, a reading light in one car, and a flashlight-at the
very end of the play the cars are started and the headlights and
taillights are turned on.
Simple effective solutions for the required sound effects were
devised by AI Agius-Sinerco. As an overture for each act and to
help make the transition into the performance, two-track stereo
tape recordings of cars passing on a freeway were heard going
from West to East in Act One and from East to West on wet
pavement in Act Two. The two channels were fed into two Bose
800 speakers, one at each end of the performance enclosure. At
first the cars travel at highway speeds past the audience, then
they slow down, gradually come to a stop with engines idling,
horns honk, and engines are turned off. At the end of each act
cars are heard starting in the distance, then cars nearer are
heard starting, and finally the cars on stage are started by the
actors.
In one of the cars belonging to a paranoid corporation
president, a public address system was installed with speaker in
the grill so the president could speak to others without getting
out of his car. This system was powered by the car battery
through the cigarette lighter receptacle.
Inexpensive, used portable casette tape recorders were
placed in three of the cars to serve various functions. All were
actor operated and powered by the car batteries. In one car
belonging to a young Italian tourist couple, the recorder was
used for sounds of their baby crying. It was completely believable that a live baby was in the car. In the men's pool car were
two recorders so it was possible on cue to change from a radio
station giving traffic reports to a station with music. The second
casette in this instance included the sounds of dialing past
several stations to arrive at the correct music station. The
corporation president's car had a tape recorder connected to the
public address system. At one point in the dark of Act Two he
mistakes a drunken employee for an attacker and turns on a
recorded siren which is heard from the speaker in the car grill.
To complete the effect, he also turns on his hazard lights and
headlights and shouts through his PA system.
Such surprising but plausible events serve the purpose of the
style which intends to put the spectators into a distanced observer relationship with the fictional world rather than involving
them emotionally with the characters. The hyperreal setting,
cars, sound, the use of car lights, and the unusual perspective
from which the performance was viewed created a theatricality
which led the audience to perceive the common place objects as
well as the characters and events in a fresh more acute way.
The location of the performance space also contributed to this
spectator reaction by creating a sense of adventure causing
them to observe more keenly than in everyday situations. In
order to enter the warehouse it was necessary for the audience
to walk out on the pier for nearly 600' with San Francisco Bay
beneath them and the Golden Gate bridge in the distance. Having
entered the unique seating area audience expectancies were
aroused. The sounds of cars passing on the freeway began,
house lights dimmed, and the stage lights came up on a surprising
view of a freeway with real cars stuck in a traffic jam. 0

Theodore Shank is Professor of Dramatic Art at the University of California, Davis and a Contributing Editor of The Drama Review.

16

Theatre Design & Technology

USITI Summer, 1982



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1982 - 21
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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