Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 9

over four decades, he always designed both ets and
costume as well as the lighting for his productions. He
wrote a number of books on the scenic designer's role in
both the past and the present that included The Stage Is
Set t 1932) and The Art of Scenic Design t 19501. He also
commented on current design in his autobiographical
Part of a Lifetime 1193"+1. He wrote about theatre architecture for the EncI'clopedia Britannica and contributed articles on the theatre to various iournals and magazines.
It is in his first book, The Stage Is Set, that he includes
a chapter on Gordon Craig, whom he scorns as a
romantic illustrator of daydreams, followed by a chapter of total praise for Adolphe Appia, whom he sees as
the philosopher-prophet of everything that was to
develop in the scenic design of the twentieth century.
He described Appia as "that rare combination, a creative
artist of exceptional imagination and at the same time a
rigorously logical theorist." He details his admiration
for Appia as the founder of plastic in place of twOdimensional painted scenery:
The e thetic problem of scene design, as Appia
made plain, is a plastic one. The designer's task is to
relate forms in space, some of which are static,
some of which are mobile. The stage itself is an enclosed space. Organization must be actually threedimensional. Therefore, the canons of pictorial art
are valueless. The painted illusion of the third dimension, valid in the painted picture where it can
evoke both space and mass, is immediately negated
when it is set on stage where the third dimension is
real.
The plastic elements involved in scenic design, as
Appia analyzed them, are four: perpendicular painted scenery, the horizontal floor, the moving actor,
and the lighted space in which they are confined.
The esthetic problem, as he pointed out, is a single
one: How are these four elements to be combined
so as to produce an indubitable unity! IThe Stage Is
Set, p. 3551
It is obvious that Simonson admired the logic of thi
theory of unity bet\\'een the three-dimensional actor
and the three-dimensional setting, but he was also a
painter who had been exci ted by the color he had found
in the work of the Ballets Russes and the paintings of
Matisse and the Fauvists, and thus he wanted color as
part of three-dimensional settings, and Appia's theory
provided him wi th the abili ty to paint his settings wi th
ligh t.
.. in promulgating this theory of a tage setting,
he completed its unification by insisting on the
plasticity of light itself, which no one before him
had conceived. He demonstrated in detail, both as a
theorist and as a draftsman, how stage lighting
could be used and controlled so as to establish a
completely unified three-dimensional world on the
stage. I The Stage Is Set, p. 3571
We all know what he is speaking of and what he admi red
when we look, as he did, at sketches like the 1896 de-

Figure 2. Lee Simonson: Goat Song, Theatre Guild, 1926. Sketches for
Acts I and II. (Photo taken from color sketches.) Courtesy of the Dept. of
Special Collections, Stanford University Libraries.

signs for Act II of Tristan and Isolde and Gluck' Odeo.
Simonson goes on to quote directly from Appia's
work of 1 99, Music and Stage Setting:
Only light and music can express "the inner nature
of all appearance." Even if their relative importance
in music drama is not always the same, their effect
is very similar. Both require an object to whose
superficial aspect they give creative form. The poet
provides the object for music, the actor, in the stage
setting, that for light. (The Stage Is Set, p. 355)
This statement, particularly the phrase, "the inner nature of all appearance," that Simonson quotes lies at the
heart of the symbolist movement in which the inner life
of humani ty can only be projected through mood and
suggestion aided by lighting and music. It is Jt the heart
of a great symbolist opera like Pelleas and Melisande or
in the paintings of Odillon Redan, who wanted to paint
mysterious forms and feelings that could not be described. Redan, like Delacroix before him, felt that the
highest level of art would be achieved when a painter
could record the sound of music that has passed away.
Redan, the essential symbolist painter, attempts to depict the inner nature of experience in the same manner
as Adolphe Appia, the essential symbolist scenic designer. But Simonson admired not only this symbolist
ideal but its practical application to concrete producTOb;.T . FALL 1986

7



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 6
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1986 - 8
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