Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 73

evaluations on professional activity, often construed as research/scholarship or publication, to the exclusion of creative
activity. The theatrical design and technology faculty members
at these institutions often face conflicting standards. Usually
departmental colleagues will not support retention, tenure or
promotion unless they are satisfied with the quality of the
candidate's creative activity in support of departmental productions. Sometimes they expect the candidate to be active in
off-campus professional theatres as well. If the institutional
administration and faculty review committees outside the department view these creative activities as having little significance, the candidate may find it humanly impossible to meet
both sets of standards.
The departmental evaluators, administrators, and other institutional reviewers have an obligation to establish common
retention/tenure/promotion criteria which it is possible for a
competent and diligent individual to meet. We believe that
most failures to meet this obligation result from lack of awareness that conflicting sets of criteria are applied to this specialized area.
The amount of teaching and creative work required of a
designer or technologist has great impact on the candidate's
ability to meet other review criteria. We therefore find it necessary to discuss the topic in some detail.
It is a fundamental principle that theatrical designers and
technologists are obligated to the employing institution for no
more time or work than faculty members in other disciplines or
other theatre specialties at similar rank and salary levels. All
activities which are required of the candidate by the department or institution should be considered as part of the work
load. We specifically include production design in this category.
If the candidate will be penalized or negatively evaluated by
colleagues for declining an activity, then it is not voluntary or
optional and should be reasonably compensated through release from other duties, or through increase in salary tied to the
particular duty.
Where on-campus production activity is credited as an equivalent to research/scholarship, special care should be taken in
evaluating work loads. Theatrical design and technological activities which are required to support campus productions typically occur on a regular, specified schedule and under tight
deadlines which the faculty must meet. Regardless of the type
of credit received in evaluations, these duties are performed
under contract to the institution. Requiring excessive creative
activity/research/scholarship should be viewed as an overload.
Such required activities differ from the research and scholarship common to other departments, where the activities may
occur at the option and convenience of the individual.
There are various ways of relating required on-campus theatrical activity to teaching or other academic duties. For quantifying time required in instruction, we suggest the following
formula, which may be adjusted to reflect institutional norms:
for each hour of classroom time, two additional hours of preparation time are expected. Thus teaching a course which meets
for 35 hours during a term, a faculty member may expect to
work a total of 105 hours (35 + (2 X35)). At the same institution,
a faculty member who is required to spend 105 hour in required creative activity should earn release from teaching a
course which meets for 35 hours or should earn similar compensation. Time consumed in required creative activiry should
not significantly exceed the time base for compensation, unless
provision is made for overloads. Overloads based on required
creative activity should be subject to all prevailing limitations
and policies on course overloads, especially those regarding the
frequency with which an overload is permitted.
Approaching this issue in another way, release from classroom teaching for production activity may be granted in recognition of the student contact inherent in the activity, similar to
that in studio courses in art or in science laboratories. Thus
rehearsal hours are one form of acting/directing studio, as is

usually acknowledged in the directors' teaching release time.
Hours spent in scenic or costume studio activities or supervision may be compared to rehearsal hours, earning similar reduction in teaching load per show. Alternatively, the studio
hours may be calculated on the same basis used in calculating
credit for teaching art studios or science laboratories.
The educational scenic studio, properties studio and costume
studio are studios or laboratories for the student's development
of professional abilities, requiring continual instruction and
supervision. In training a designer or theatre technologist the
faculty member who is the designer, technical director, or costumer will usually guide the research and technical aspects of
the design process, instruct and often participate in the construction and installation of the setting or costumes, and supervise and/or assist in adjustments required during the on-stage
rehearsal period. The studio supervision of student designers
and technologists is a major instructional activity and should
be recognized as such in evaluating teaching and teaching
loads. Thus as assignment to spend 15-20 hours per week in
supervising/participating in the scenic or costume studio operation constitutes at leas a half-time appointment, leaving the
faculty member available for not more than half-time classroom instructional duties, design assignments, or other production duties.
Campus facilities are often used for performances by touring
theatre companies, dance groups, orchestras, speakers, or popular music groups, from rock to country/western. Such activities
may require special lighting and sound set-ups, scenery or stage
drapery, wardrobe maintenance or other forms of theatrical
support. Other departments or administrative offices may require design or technical support for dance productions, operas,
concerts, or other special events. Significant amounts of time in
design and technical supervision are commonly required to
meet these needs. All such obligations for which involvement is
required of the faculty in theatrical design and technology
should be appropriately recognized and weighed in evaluations
and in determining teaching/work loads.
Particular attention should be paid to the overall work load of
the faculty member in a combined-specialties position. Frequently the production activities of these colleagues have not
been adequately compensated through teaching release time or
overload pay, often because the overload is not recognized.
Continued work in such a situation endangers not only the
physical and psychological health of the faculty member, but
the welfare of students supervised in complex technical processes by an individual suffering from chronic fatigue and high
levels of stress.
Compensation, whether monetary or through release from
other duties, becomes an issue in the evaluation process because of its impact on morale and productivity. Personal financial pressures may undermine the effectiveness of theatrical
designers and technologists, as for any other individuals. The
problem is exacerbated by the relatively low salaries in Fine
Arts (Academe. March-April 19861 and the tendency to overload designers and technologists.
For the theatrical designer or technologist, on-campus production activity consumes time and energy which could otherwise be devoted to off-campus creative activity, generating additional income, or to personal interests. This is true regardless
of how such activity i credited las research/scholarship or not I
for evaluation purposes. If a faculty painter or sculptor creates a
work which is sought for the institution's collection or to decorate an administrative facility, the artist commonly receives a
fair price for the work of art. Similarly, faculty members in
accounting are not expected to provide accounting services to
the institution as part of their faculty duties, though it is conceivable that they may be separately commissioned to do so.
The same principle should apply to the art works of theatrical
designers and technologists, who should be compensated for
providing designs for campus productions and other events. The

TD&T SUPPLEMENT

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FALL 1987

5



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1987 - 8
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