Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 43

Soun~
Theatre Sound Leads Film Sound?
BY CHARLIE RICHMOND

ome time before the term
"sound designer" was used in the
film industry, I designed the
sound for a production of Private
Lives, directed by Francis Ford
Coppola and produced during a brief
break he had juSt before the release of
The Godfather. This was possibly the
first time he had been exposed to the
concept of a "designer" of sound as
practiced in professional theatre.
Certainly, the film industry had always spent lavishly on scores when it
could, and I was a great admirer of the
major effort Coppola produced with
the assistance of his favorite sound
editor Walter Murch in the film
THXl138. It is most telling that,
when George Lucas finally turned
his efforts to creating a high quality,
standardized, and defined sound system for cinema playback, he named
it "THX" after that early project.
Now, I'm not saying that Private
Lives had a spectacular sound - in
fact, it was simply standard professional theatre. We had a live trio led
by Carmine Coppola providing
period preshow, incidental, scene
break, intermission, curtain call, and
audience exit music. Playing quietly
in an acoustically treated orchestra
box, they were almost inaudible
without sound reinforcement, yet
having them in clear view added a
tasteful touch to the production. The
instruments were carefully miked
with cues and levels carefully noted
throughout the regular technical rehearsal process. No live sound operator sat in the house; nothing was left
to chance as levels accurate to IdB
were set by the sound designer for
every sound the trio made. As usual,
levels were increased with the size of
the audience, but the cue sheets remained the operator's master for the
run of the show. The fact that a
"sound designer" was responsible for
the artistic aspects of sound within
the production and that the production benefitted as a result was not

S

lost on Coppola, since shortly thereafter he directed the first film to my
knowledge crediting the services of a
sound designer, The Conversation.
In most respects, the film sound
designer performs the function of
both sound reinforcement and sound
score design. The USITT Engineering Subcommittee on Audio &
Acoustics opinion consensus report
states that the basic purpose of reinforcement in the theatre " ... is to

... the term "sound designer"
did not come into general use
in reinforcement (stage or
film) until it became a
generally accepted precept
that all sound within a
production is best integrated
by someone with a good
understanding of artistic
intent, physiology of hearing,
venue and systems . ..

insure that speech and music ... is
heard with sufficient loudness, clarity, intelligibility, naturalness, and
with directional realism by the audience."l From the same report: "The
purpose lof sound effects] we are
most familiar with is the heightening of the illusion of realism. A second purpose is to heighten a particular emotion.... A third purpose is
continuity. Finally, sound may actually become a protagonist.... "2
The most difficult parallel to substantiate is the function of reinforcement. Obviously, since the method of
production and presentation of film
sound is exclusively from prerecorded materials, one could hardly
agree that it exemplifies live reinforcement. Indeed, microphone,
mixing, and vocal alteration techniques are substantially different between live voice reinforcement
onstage and production sound or automatic dialog replacement IADRI
for film, but in both cases the specific

goal is expressly as defined in the
USITT report. In other words, if the
purpose of film sound is specifically
to ensure that speech and music (in
this case meaning realistic humangenerated sounds that precisely
coincide with the visual images
presented, not underscoring) is heard
with sufficient loudness, clarity, intelligibility, naturalness, and
with directional realism by the audience, then should it not be labelled
reinforcement?
Another parallel between stage
and film "reinforcement II that goes
beyond the semantic is its relative
importance. In most cases sound
effects and music scores certainly
perform an illusionary, emotional
and/or continuity function, but usually have only a nominal effect on
communication of the show's meaning to its audience. Reinforcement is
essential in both cases: if it disappears during either stage or film presentations, the show simply stops
and the price of admission is refunded. This aspect has not gone unnoticed, of course, since personnel
have long been employed by both
film and stage productions to ensure
the message gets across. What is intriguing is that the term "sound designer" did not come into general use
in reinforcement (stage or film) until
it became a generally accepted precept that all sound within a production is best integrated by someone
with a good understanding of artistic
intent, physiology of hearing, venue
and systems; plus, according to Dr.
John Bracewell, "Motivation, Music,
Acoustical Reinforcement, Vocal Alteration, Vocal Substitution, Mood
and Extension of Dramatic Time/
Space."3
Film production has consistently
employed some of the most brilliant
sound engineers right from the start
of the "talkies, II and no expense has
been spared in many cases to create
continued on p. 49
TD&T· SUMMER 1987

41



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 44
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 50
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 51
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 52
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 53
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 54
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 55
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 56
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 57
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 58
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 59
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 60
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 61
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1987 - 62
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com