Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 8

To analyze the influence of women to date, it is imporWhat makes scene design such a difficult area for
tant to consider not only the quality, but also the quantity
women to make their mark~ Heidi Landesman, who in
of scene design work they've done. HistOricall}; have there
19 5 received the first solely-awarded Tony in scene design
been a substantial number of women working professionever bestOwed on a woman' offers this theory:
ally as scene designers; How are they faring currently~ Set
designer Marjorie Bradley Kellogg published a survey in
It's related to architecrure. How many famous and
American Theatre to address these questions.
successful women architects are there; Very few. The
This survey \\'as a small one, targeted at women who
reason there are so many women lighting designers
were established, working professional scene designers.
and costume designers is because it's a soft material.
That list numbered twenty-five. Even though this is a low
Even lighting design is about a soft element that is
number from which to make statistical inferences, there is
controlled by sensitivity, and instinct. Traditionally
no evidence to suggest the number of women scene dethese are things that men understand that women can
signers in all of professional theatre is any larger. When
do well. Set design is about hard materials. Of course
women are not associated with these things 6
asked where their last five jobs were, these women responded that 2.7% were on Broadway,
25% were Off-Broadway and Off-OffGender cliches such as man/hard
Broadway, 27% listed regional theand woman/soft are somewhat laughable-until examined more closely.
atres, 45% other3
This survey indicates the pitifully
The "hard" surfaces of architecture
low number of women currently
and scenery define space in a far less
working in the high-visibility themutable way than the "softer" fabrics
he roles of supatres. Out of seventy-five reported
of costume or the more ethereal
jobs, only tWO were on Broadway.
boundaries of light. The ability to deporter and mefine space in this more concrete way
Clearly women are under-represented- this is a small group of women
makes both the architect and the scediator have been
doing a small percentage of the work
nic de igner powerful. A set design
can define the shape of the "world of
in the "important" theatres.
traditionally
Official statistics are not available
the play," JUSt as a building determines
on how women fared earlier in this
much abont the way its inhabitants
feminine. The
live. A closer look at how architecture
century. However, there is no indicafunctions in society provides insight
tion conditions were better. One of the
roles of controller and
to the problem.
earliest female members of the United
Scenic Artists (the designer's unionl,
The architecture of a society
director (in the largest
Peggy Clark Kelly, makes revealing
provides a virtual anthropological
comments about her difficulty in atchart of its power structure. For examsense) have been mastempting to work in the professional
ple, in most societies the larger, more
scenic studios during the Depression
public and political spaces (for inculine. These represent
stance, senate chambers) have been
at a typical union call:
traditionally designated as the males'
two ends of a scale.
The first studio I drew I had to
domain; the private, smaller, and more
trade, change with another memdomestic spaces (such as the homel,
ber, because they had no facilities
the females'.7 The architect becomes
for women. They had no extra tOilet or anything there,
the enforcer of the hierarchical strucrure of a society
thJOugh his power to allocate space.
so that limited the number of shops I could work in. I
had to go where there was a separate tOilet; that's the
The scene designer brings this power to control space
state law.~
into the theatre. How the actOrs can move, the context in
which their costumes are seen, the surfaces which reflect
Obviously at that point, employment of women in scene
light, are all determined by the scene designer. Although
design or any of the stage crafts was not considered the
he is answerable to the directOr and the other designers, as
norm since a number of shops did not even deem it necesevery anxious directOr knows, it is far easier to change a
light cue or an entire costume than a lumbering twentysary to provide basic accomodations.
It is perplexing how, in spite of the histOrical bias against
foot staircase.
participation by women, they have been so recogni=ably
Despite all pretense to democratic collaboration
amongst the three design areas, thar power is unequal. The
successful in theatre design areas except cene design. lean
Rosenthal is credjted with the invention of the modem
relationship of the lighting de igner and costume designer
profession of lighting design. Also, costllIning emerged
to the scene designe. is subordinate, resembling that of the
into a professional art largely through the efforts of women
interior designer to the architect. For example, light is
during the "little theatre"movemenr of the '20s and '30s. A
primarily visible only when it is reflected by surfaces. The
list of Tony Award winners in costume design is domiset designer, not the lighting designer, controls the shape of
nated by the names of women: Aline Bemstein, Irene
these surfaces. This places the lighting designer in a more
Sharaff, Patricia Zipprodt, Franne Lee, and Theoni Alsupportive role. With his light he can mediate the focus of
dredge, to list a few. This award indicates their work has
the audience's eyes between the scenjc enviroIUnent, the
been recognized even in the ultra-conservative climate of
costumed actOr, and the actOr's movement through space
established Broadway theatre.
continued on page 50

( '\

6

TD&T·

SPRING 1 gee



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1988 - 14
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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