Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 60

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Adaptations for Greater Accessibility
Tara Schroeder Dicken, LHAT Bulletin Editor
"Our primary driving force is to make rhe house work and make
the space accessible to the communit),," says Tom \Xfeidermann,
Executive Director of the Samuel Clemens Center for the Performing Arts in Elmira, Y. The original renovation in the
1970s included barrier-free adaptations and over the years the
theatre's staff and board have examined and responded to special
parron needs. Although these accessibility adaptations have
enabled more people to participate, creating a barrier-free theatre
does not end with the installation of a wheelchair lift and an
infrared listening system.
Providing for access with dignity and independence for all
patrons has become a pervading sense at the Clemens Center.
One day \Xfeidermann took a tour of the theatre-not from his
usual 5'-8" perspective but sitting four feet from the ground in a
wheelchair. His first obstacle? The front door. Although there are
no steps that would prevent access to the lobby and auditorium,
he experienced difficult!, grasping the door handles and maneuvering the wheelchair through the door and ultimately had to ask
for help. ext, he found it difficult to carryon a comfortable
conversation with the box office attendant given the height of the
counter. As a result of this tour, specially-designed door handles
that are easier to grip were installed and the box office height was
adjusted.
With the passage of the Americans With Disability Act
(ADA) into law by President Bush on 26 July 1990, historic the-

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58

1991 FAll

TD&T

atres are now required by law to make their facilities and programming accessible. Since 1973, historic theatres that receive
federal funding have had to comply with mandates set forth in
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act. Section 504 prohibits discrimination against disabled people under any program or activity receiving federal assistance. The Americans \Xfith Disabilities
Act (ADA) goes one step further by requiring improved access
for disabled people in both public and private places. All new
public facilities must be made accessible to people with disabilities and all existing facilities must be modified for accessibility by
26 January 1992 or be vulnerable to lawsuits. The ADA prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in private sector
employment, public accommodations, public services and
telecommunications.
''The ADA is making people with disabilities more aware of
their rights to be fully integrated into the mainstream," says
Paula Terry, coordinator, Office of Special Constituencies,
National Endowment for the Arts, "which includes having access
to a range of cultural activities."
Of particular concern to historic theatres are the public
accommodations requirements. In part, it states that "physical
barriers in existing facilities must be removed, if removal is readily achievable. If not, alternative methods of providing the services
must be offered, if they are readily available."
Although restoration plans L1Sually include barrier-free alterations, some people fear the more stringent ADA requirements
will adversely affect the architectural integrity of historic buildII1gs.
There is no cause for alarm. In existing facilities, barriers
must be removed when such removal can be accomplished without much difficulty or expense. If not, alternative methods of
making goods and services available must be in place. According
to the Department of Justice, "readily achievable" means the
modification can be accomplished easily and be carried out without much difficulty or expense. The Department of Justice will
issue detailed guidelines on what is considered "readily achievable" taking into consideration the COSt of the modifications, the
financial resources and impact on the business, among other factors.
From an aesthetic standpoint, a balance must be struck
between creating a barrier-free environment and preserving the
intrinsic architectural beauty of these theatres. Violinist [tzak
Perlman has said that barrier-free design and adaptations should
be an "incredible artistic challenge" to architectural designers.
These elements should be an integral part of the design and not
just tacked on to an area.
The United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers
Compliance Board publishes Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards, which provide accessibilit)f standards for both new construction and historic property renovations. If, by following these
standards, there's a concern that a particular access accommodation is going to disturb the integrity of the building, plans may
be submitted to the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation
for review. "If the advisory council feels that, for example," says
Terry, "an elevator would ruin the theatre, the theatre must then
comply with Section 4.1.7, Part 2 standards which gives minimum guidelines."
"The basic philosophy about this is that all historic buildings



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1991 - 9
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