Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 54

for assembly purposes by fewer
than 50 persons in a building of
other occupancy and incidental to
such other occupancy shall be
classed as part of the other occupancy and subject to the provisions applicable thereto (1 FPA
367).
JUSt as a designer employs conventions or
rules-of-thumb that he uses as a guide to
the use of stage space or to determine the
proportions scenic elements, another set
of conventions is employed to calculate
how many people can safely occupy a
flexible theatre. The total occupant load
of this classification of assembly occupancy is determined by rwo calculations,
"room capacity" and "exit capacity."
The "room capacity method" is a calculation of "persons per net square foot"
( FPA 374). Depending on the nature
of the seating, one of two "occupant load
factors" (NFPA 374) applies. The formula, "one person per 15 net sq. fr." ( FPA
375), applies to fixed seating, or when
chairs are permanently attached to the
floor. The formula, "one person per 7 net
sq. ft." ( FPA 374), calculates the allowable capacity using temporary seating.
For "bleachers, pews and similar benchtype seating-one person for 18 linear
inches," must be provided ( FPA 376).
When using the "room capacity
method," the square footage specifically
designated for audience space is determined and divided by 15 for fixed seating, or seven for temporary seating. If
calculating for fixed seating, areas intended for use as aisles may not be counted as
audience space ( FPA 376). The result is
the allowable capacity for this method.
The "exit capacity method" is based
on a requirement of a minimum 0.2
inches of door width per person. The
total width of all doors used to exit the
room divided by 0.2 is the allowable
capacity for this method ( FPA 378).
After making both calculations, the
lower of the twO methods of calculation
is the safe, allowable occupant load. In
cases involving any reasonable amount of
acting space, the room capacity method
will generally be the lower figure.
A method of assembling temporary
seating groups that are adaptable and
inexpensive to use is homemade platforming units that measure 3'- 3" deep
and up to 8'- 0" wide. Depending on the
design of the chair, a 3'- 3" depth is a
good compromise between allowing for
the Life Safety Code minimum requirement of 12" between rows of seats and
optimizing audience space ( FPA 389).
"For rows of chairs served by aisles or
52

1992 FALL

TD&T

doorways at both ends, there shall be no
more than 100 seats per row, and the
minimum clear width between rows of
12 inches shall be increased by 0.3 inches
for every additional seat beyond 14 but
not to exceed 22 inches ( FPA 390).
The square footage of each 3'- 3" x
8'- 0" seating platform, as a separate unit
with slightly more than five, 1'- 6" wide
chairs, provides slightly less than the
occupancy load factor, using the room
capacity method for temporary seating.
However, when square footage of aisles
and the space between seating and a
design element is added into the calculation (which is permirred for temporary
seating), the use of platform units of this
size will roughly approximate the requirements of the Life Safety Code.
The platform units, constructed as a
standard 2 x 4 and 3/4" plywood platform with additional framing and legs,
will suppOrt the load of five or six seated
persons per eight foot width. A I x I
strip fastened to the top of the platforms
at the sides and rear perimeter of the seating groups prevents chair legs from sliding off the edge of the platform.
If the groups are nestled into corners
or against walls of the theatre, the platforming units may be fastened together
from underneath with c-c1amps. This
makes disassembly easy. The units should
be bolted together if they are freestanding
for added strength. The legs of any freestanding units constructed to a height
greater than 16" should be crossedbraced.
Commercially manufacrured platforms are srurdy and have built-in fastening fearures but are expensive and,
although they are available in a variety of
heights and shapes, cannot be individually altered for complicated arrangements.
Legging seating groups to increments
of no less than 8" provides an unobstructed view for rows behind others.
Since the height of seating groups and
spacing between chairs may determine
the narure of aisles it is important to note
the requirements for aisles:
Every aisle with a gradient I in 8
or less shall consist of a ramp.
Every aisle with gradient exceeding
1 in 8 shall consist of stair having
treads, risers, and handrails complying with the following requirements:
(a) Tread depth shall be uniform in
each aisle.
(b)Treads shall be a minimum of
11 in. (27.9 cm).
(c) Riser heights shall be a mini-

mum of 4 in. (10.2 cm).
(d) Riser heights shall not exceed 8
in. (20.3 cm).
(e) Riser heights shall be uniform
within a flight.
(f) Ramped aisles having a gradient exceeding I in 15, and aisle
stairs shall be provided with
handrails at one side or along
the centerline.
(g) A contrasting marking stripe
shall be provided on each tread
at the nosing or leading edge
such that the location of such
tread is readily apparent, particularly when viewed in
descent. Such stripes shall be at
least I in. (2.5 cm) wide and
shall not exceed 2 in. (5 cm)
wide ( FPA 405-409).
Minimum widths of aisles, generally
determined by the capacity thar the particular aisle is to serve, generally have a
final minimum width of "30 in. (76 cm)
for catchment areas having not greater
than 60 seats" (NFPA 399). Any "deadend aisles shall not exceed 20 fro (6.1 m)
in length" ( FPA 398).
Among the fundamentals of the Life
Safety Code are requirements that provide
this theatre facility with adequate exits
that are clearly marked and unobstructed
and are designed with the function,
shape, and size of the facility in mind.
Specifically, "Every Class C assembly
occupancy shall have at least tWO means
of egress consisting of separate doors leading to a corridor or other spaces giving
access to twO separate and independent
exits in different directions" (NFPA 388).
Although an exit may be needed as
an entrance for performers, it still must
be unobstructed, in full view of the audience, marked with an approved exit sign,
and lighted to the recommended standards (NFPA 389).
Requirements for exit lighting provide for continuous illumination of any
exit way while the room is occupied:
The floors of means of egress shall
be illuminated at all points angles
and intersections of corridors and
passageways, stairways, landings
of stairs, and exit doors to values
of nor less than I footcandle (10
Ix) measured at the floor.... may be
reduced to values not less than
1/5 footcandle (2 Ix) during periods of performances of projections involving directed light ...
shall be so arranged that the failure of any single lighting unit,
such as the burning out of an e1ec-



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 15
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 21
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 34
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 1992 - 37
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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