Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 24

Because incandescenr srage lighring insrallarions firsr appeared
in rhe Unired Srares more rhan a year afrer rheir inrroducrion
abroad, rhe configurarions of rhese insrallarions and rhe inirial
crirical reacrion ro rhem has been generally underdocumenred.
Bur an examinarion of rhe inrroducrion of elecrrical incandescence inro US rhearres provides a useful overview of rhe viral
role elecrrical rechnology played in shaping many of rhe basic
reners of modern srage lighring design.
A cerrain amounr of confusion surrounds rhe esrablishmenr
of elecrriciry as a primary energy source for illuminarion in rhearres. The use of elecrric carbon arc sporlighrs in rhearres long
before rhe inrroducrion of full dynamo-conrrolled sysrems for
elecrric incandescence is cerrainly one of rhe sources of rhis confusion. A rypical misundersranding is chronicled in an 1895
arricle in Notes and Queries.
Larely I have read "EI Fruro de la Deshonra," by Miguel
Ulloa, a drama which was firsr produced on Seprember
23, 1880, in rhe Tearro Payrer, Habana. In rhe aurhor's

ACT 2 OF "THE SORCERER" AT THE BUOU THEATRE, BOSTON. PRODUCTION OPENED 11 JUNE

direcrions concerning rhe sraging of a cerrain scene is rhe
following [rranslared]: "On opening rhe windows rhere
srreams forrh a ray of elecrric lighr rhar crosses rhe scene,
in imirarion of sunlighr." Assuming rhar rhe elecrric lighr
was used on rhe dare menrioned, are any earlier insrances
known of irs being urilized for srage effecrs?" I
The assumprion by rhe aurhor of rhe arricle rhar a requesr for an
"elecrric lighr" effecr was exrraordinary in this period shows his
lack of knowledge abour rhe availability of elecrric arc sporlighring for sunlight effecrs since rhe 1850s. Perhaps rhe mosr inreresring fearure of rhis passage lies in rhe playwright's inclusion of
a specific armospheric lighting nore in his scripr-naming borh
rhe rype of lighr ro be used (elecrric) and rhe effecr he hoped ro
creare (imirarion of sunlighr). This srage direcrion serves as an
indicarion rhar rhe rhearrical possibiliries of elecrric lighring had
made an impression on playwrighrs as early as 1880.
Elecrrical incandescence, in using elecrriciry ro hear up a filamenr rarher rhan ro awkwardly (and noisily) cause a spark ro
jump across rwo carbon rods, mer wirh almosr immediare success in rhe rhearrical communiry. \X!hile ir rook more rhan a
22

1993 SPRING

TD&T

decade for irs predecessor gaslighr ro be inrroduced inro rhearre
buildings afrer ir was firsr available, ir rook less rhan rwo years
for elecrrical incandescence ro achieve a similar mark afrer irs
inrroducrion in 1879. The Paris Opera was rhe firsr rhearre ro
be rorally illuminared by elecrrical incandescence, bur irs complere elecrrificarion (from 15 Ocrober 1881) owed more ro an
Elecrrical Exhibirion raking place in Paris ar rhe rime rhan (0 a
daring experimenr by rhe managemenr. Indeed, rhe versariliry
of elecrriciry was hardly showcased ar all since rhe building's
seven elecrrical sysrems inhabired rhe same posirions, and in
some cases rhe same fixrures, as rhe gaslighring appararus.'
On rhe orher hand, London's Savoy Thearre, wirh irs insrallarion complered by December 1881, proved ro be an ideal flagship for elecrrical incandescence in rhe rhearre. Manager
Richard D'Oyly Carre's eagerness ro borh demysrify and promore rhe new rechnology made him elecrriciry's ideal champion. He encouraged crirics and journalisrs ro view and wrire
abour rhe insrallarion. Perhaps mosr imporranrly-wirh a grear
deal of help from Gilberr and Sullivan-e1ecrric lighring was
associared wirh a rhearrical commercial
success. Ir would be observed and discussed by rhousands of rhearre goers
every week. The resulrs were immediareIy evidenr. Afrer rhe Savoy insrallarion,
every new rhearre builr in London was
equipped wirh e1ecrrical fixrures, beginning wirh rhe Alhambra Thearre, which
opened only a monrh after rhe Savoy. j
While US rechnicians, led by
Thomas Edison, were in rhe forefronr of
experimenrarion wirh incandescenr e1ecrric lighr, ir was nor unril 11 December
1882 rhar rhe Bijou in Bosron became
rhe firsr American rhearre ro embrace rhe
"sunshine of elecrriciry." The Bijou renovarions, like rhose ar rhe Savoy, were well
chronicled by rhe local newspapers. In
rhe 11 days in which rhe rhearre was
closed ro allow rhe elecrrical sysrem ro be
insralled, more rhan $50,000 worrh of
remodelling was accomplished. Edison
himself spenr more rhan 60 hours super1BB3.
vising rhe fine runing of rhis prororype
insrallarion. In an inrerview in rhe Bostoll
Herald (14 December 1882: 2), he admirred rhar he had hardly
slepr during rhe difficulr task of firring up his first rhearre building: "\X1ell, rhis rhearre business is a new one ro us. Now, if ir
was a cor(On facrory, I would feel ar home; bur 1 acknowledge I
have been somewhar anxious as ro rhis experimenr."
Arricles in rwo Bosron newspapers provided derailed informarion abour rhe recenrly renovared Bijou. 4 As in rhe case of
almosr every newly elecrrified rhearre building, rhe number of
incandescenr bulbs employed in rhe insrallarion seemed ro lead
all orher irems of inreresr. The Bijou boasred 644 elecrric lighrs
in all. Each produced 16 candlepower of illuminarion (roughly
equivalenr (0 rhar provided by a modern 25 warr household
lighr bulb). More rhan 190 of rhe lamps were locared in an
unusual horseshoe arch which formed rhe proscenium. The arch
had an inner concave rrough lined wirh rin which held a series
of rhree independenr lighr sers of 64 insrrumenrs each. Similar
reflecror-lined concave rroughs held 140 more lamps on moveable barrens above rhe srage. Bunchlighrs-floor mounred boxes
which held nine or more lamps-complered rhe srage firrings.
Overall rhe Bijou employed lirrle more rhan half as many lamps
as rhe Savoy had employed ro lighr irs srage and audirorium.



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 41
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 46
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 68
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