Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 25

liancy, from a mere glimmer ro rhe full power of rhe
A grear deal of rhe reducrion in insralled fixrures ar rhe Bijou
no doubr resulred from rhe managemenr's exrraordinary decilighrs, is had insranraneouslv by rhe acrion of rhe parenr
appararus invenred by M r. Edison
sion w eliminare rhe foorlighring during rhe renovarions. The
Bijou managemenr seemed w feel rhar rhe increased illuminaNor only was rhe incandescenr lighring sysrem praised, bur rhe
rion from incandescenr lighrs combined wirh rhe proximiry of
abolirion of rhe foorlighrs was also cired as a formidable
rhe horseshoe arch rroughs would provide sufficienr downsrage
lighr. By removing rhe "unnarural" downsrage underlighring of
improvemenr over old merhods. According w rhe Boston Globe
(17 December 1882: 7): "Everybody who wi messed rhe perforrhe foorlighr posirions, rhe Bijou managemenr had shown
mance of 'Iolanrhe' rhis week will remember rhe brillianr lighranorher porenrial advanrage of e1ecrric lighring. Onlv on rare
ing of rhe srage and rhe sudden rransformarion from moonlighr
occasions had ninereenrh-cenrury managers arrempred ro e1imiro dazzling day in rhe lasr acr and may have wondered how ir
nare foorlighrs-and cerrainly rhe refurbishing of rhe Bijou repwas all accomplished wirhour foorlighrs." The Boston Ellenillg
resenred an remarkable vore of confidence for rhe power of elecTiflll5cript (12 December 1882: 1) reviewer even suggesred furrric lighring. This show of confidence was slighrly rempered,
rher changes rhar should be required by rhe new lighring condihowever, by rhe decision rhar rhe house should be "rhoroughly
[Ions:
piped for gas in case of emergency...The proscenium is prorecred from fire when gas is bumr by manganese-calcire around rhe
The principal new fearure on rhe srage is rhe absence of
arch, and rhe back of rhe srage is lined wirh Caprain Mack's fire
blocks." ,
foorlighrs (a leaf raken our of \Xfagner's Bayreurh book).
The resulrs more rhan fulfilled rhe expecrarions of rhe
The color effecrs formerly supplied by rhe foorlighrs were
produced overhead in rhe horseshoe
arch. Irs lamps were covered wirh colored
shades and provided rhree color circuirs
of red, whire, and green. The green lighr
was used w represenr moonlighr (a common choice in rhe ninereenrh cenrury),
and rhe colorless ser, wirh rhe aid of rhe
overhead borders and side bunchlighrs,
"brillianrly illuminared" rhe scene. The
lighring conrrol was placed ar a srarion
more rhan 500 feer from rhe rhearre in
rhe dynamo room, bur rhe lighr levels
were kepr consranr rhrough a relephone
hookup and a complex cuing sysrem.
Two rerum wires arrached ro indicawrs
in rhe engine room cued rhe superinrendenr abour rhe srrengrh of rhe currenr. A
bell rang and a blue lighr came on ro
indicare a weak currenr while a red lighr
indicared a srrong one. As in rhe Savoy,
regulawrs were used w check rhe currenr
which was conrrolled in rhree areas: rhe
horseshoe arch, rhe audiwrium, and rhe
PRODUCTION PHOTO OF "IOLANTHE: CONSIDERED TO BE THE FIRST STAGE PHOTO TAKEN BY ElECTRIC UGHT.
borderlighrs. Eleven swirches rhen conrrolled rhe lighrs rhroughour rhe Bijouwhich apparenrly lacked a cenrral dimming sysrem.
mosr sanguine; ir was superb. Yer we rhink rhis resulr can
sri II be improved upon, when rhe arrisr who painrs rhe
Like rhe Savoy, rhe Bijou had rhe help of a Gilberr and
acror's faces has more fully appreciared rhe new condiSullivan hir (folanthe) ro arrracr audiences. Bur while rhe prorions in which his work is w be displayed.
ducrion received a mixed crirical response, rhe elecrric lighring
was a universal success. The Boston Globe (12 December 1882:
4) was rypical in proclaiming: "Never have we seen a sreadier
Despire crirical acclaim, one backs rage accounr suggesrs rhar rhe
Bijou's experimenr wirh rhe eliminarion of foorlighrs came ro ar
and soher lighr in a rhearre rhan rhar given by Edison's incanleasr a remporary hair early in rhe run of folanthe.
descenr burners." The Boston Advertiser (12 December 1882: 1)
nored: "Ir was a remarkably pleasanr lighr, and rhe noriceable
The suffering caused bv rhis arc ofbrillianr lighrs w rhose
rhing abour ir was rhe absence of rhe ordinary bluish rinr. .. I\Ir.
on rhe srage can hardlv be realized. The effecr was like
Edison personally superinrended rhe elecrrical appararus ... nor
rhar of a dozen calciums shining direcrly in onc's eves. For
looking once inw rhe rhearre." One Bosron reviewer waired sevweeks afrer my firsr experience of rhem, 1 saw rhar gleameral days afrer rhe opening ro wrire a special rribure ro rhe mering lirrle wire consranrly before me. The new rhearre, rhe
irs of rhe Bijou's lighring sysrem:
new opera and rhe e1ecrric lighring were all successful, bur
The freedom from impure air gained by rhe use of rhe
ar rhe end of rhe firsr week rhe foorlighrs were reswrcd.
elecrric lighr will confer incalculable benefirs upon rhe
This was nor done for our comforr, bur because berrer
audiences, and rhe perfecr safer)' insured by irs use will
srage eHecrs were obrained wirh rhem. They seem w be a
give an added sense of securiry ro all parrons. The lighr is
necessary dividing line berween audience and player, in
order ro pur rhe Ianer fullv ar his case, and rheir absence
nor only sreadier and more pleasing ro rhe eye, bur ir is
on rhe flrsr nighr of [oft1nt!Jewas mosr confusing.regulared wirh absolure cerrainry and any degree of brilTD&T

1993 SPRING

23



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 44
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 50
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 51
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 52
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 53
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 54
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 55
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 56
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 57
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 58
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 60
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 61
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 62
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 63
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 64
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 65
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 66
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 67
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 1993 - 68
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