Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 55

sure manner which benefits the health and embellishment of
the state.
His said that the Arcadians 15 invented them to gentle and
refine the spirits of their citizens, who lived velY austere and
severe lives. According to Polibius, H those who refrained from
participating in them in those times became so mean spirited
that tlley were held in abomination by all of Greece.
Yet truly, the memory of the ganles is very ancient, and
various peoples are believed to have created them. So, it is
said that Dionysus ' ; first created dances and ganles; also that
Hercules '6 originally devised combats. It is said that the
Aetoleans ' - and the Eleans 1s created and started the Olympic
games after they returned from the Trojan War. Furtllermore,
it is said that regarding the Greeks, Dionysus Lenaeus,'9 who
created the first tragic chorus, was also the first to create a
place for spectacles. In Italy, Lucius Mummius 20 introduced
theatrical games 21 as a triumphal festivity two hundred years
before the reign of the emperor Nero; the histriones canle to
Rome from Etruria. 22 The equestrian games came from
Tyrins2) and practically all the various games that remain to us
came to Italy from Asia. I am inclined to believe that those
good offspring that wrought Janus in bronze, simply stood under a beech tree or an elm to watch the games. 2* Ovid was the
first to be moved by tltis: 2;
Oh Romulus,z6 you did your plays
When tile Sabine woman seized, did help tile needy men,r
Then, no canopy2S hung from marbled walls,
Nor did red saffron unguents flow upon the stage. 29
There, a sylvan palace did suffice,
simply strewn with leaves,
Ascene without artifice.
The people sat on steps of earth,
Covered o'er with boughs of every sort of leaf.

edition became the standard work in Italian. Later editions included
sumptuous illustrations.
The first English edition, a translation of the Bartoli work. was
made by Giacomo Games) Leoni and appeared in London in I 26 as
Tbe Tell Books ojArcbitectllre ~)' lealie Bat/ista Alberti, with some
additions from other works bv Alberti. It went through another edition in I 39 and. finally. one in I 55 which limits itself to the original text and includes lavish illustrations.
9. Sebastiano Serlio (14 5-1554). Italian painter and architect, published
his De Arcbitect/lra in 1545. sing his 01111 perspectire designs. he
exposed \'itmvius' "three scenes" to all of Europe as his work was
eventually translated into el'er)" major European language.
IO.ll1is translation is based on the 1512 Lltin edition of De reaedijicntoria.
Both the Bartoli and the Leoni translations were consulted. ll1is translation is an attempt to create an English te.\1 free from period topicalities
with which the earlier works are orerburdened.
II. The portion of the text-tietliCllled-tlK-aee-emtfSeS·i naiftly-a-reeonstruction of the Circus ~Iaximus and is not included here.
12. Asemi-mythological character, Epimenides was a seer, attributed with
supernatural powers. Astory tells that while chasing some lost sheep
he fell asleep in a cave for 57 years. Alberti has him sleep in a tomb.
I} The Arcadians inhabited an area in the middle of the Pelepnessus and

Still, we are told that it was on the island of Sardinia that
Jolaus, son of Iphicles,30 first introduced gradient seats when
he received the Thespiades from Hercules. 31 But, according to
ancient custom in tllOse days, tlleatres were built of wood.

Leone Battista Alberti's On Architecture

IS

both the direct successor to Vitruvius' treatise
and the beginning of modern European
literature on architecure.
Moreover, in this matter Pompey was reproached for the seats
he built for spectacles as they were permanent, not temporaIy
as they had been formerly.32 Later on, there I ere three velY
large theatres in the cityH and amphitheaters as well, one of
which was capable of holding more than two hundred thousand people and was called the Circus Maximus. 3* All of them
were built of square cut stone and adorned with marble columns. Still not content they proceeded to make places for
spectacle filled Witll marble, glass and an unbelievable multitude of statues. The most noble and capacious of these was at
Piacenza, a city in Lombardy, and was burned in Octa\~an's
war. So, enough has been said of these.
Of spectacles, some are for the eye and others for affairs.
Those which please the eye are poetry, music and histrionics.
Those really concerned \\~th the affairs of war are wrestling,
boxing, thrOWing weapons, running and any other such exel~
cise of arms. Plato desired that such as these be played evelY
year, being good for the health and ornanlentation of the city.
They require various places which are thus known by various
nanles.

were considered the most ancient people in Greece. They lived by
hunting and agriculture and later became synonymous with the
simple, rustic life.
14. Polybius, the historian, was born in Arcadia around 204 B.C. He believed that histol)' was valuable for what could be learned from it. His
"Forty Books", covering mnts between 220 and 146 B.G. survived
only in fragments.
15. Dion) u was Greek god of wine and dranlatic arts.
16. Hercules (also Heracles) was the most celebrated hero of antiquity,
whose exploits were celebrated all ol'er the ancient world. He may
hare originally been a purely human hero, but legend made him a
God (of orts) the product of Zeus' II)'St with AJcmene of Thebes,
made famous by Plautus' AlJlpbitlJOII.
. The Aetolians were reputed to be a mde and uncivilized people, living
mainly by robbel)'. Even in the time of Thucydides (B.G. 410), many
of their tribes spoke a non-Greek language and ate raw flesh. They
-are said to+lal'ei1tken-part-illihe-'froj



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 6
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