Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 57

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storms. Plato approved of theatres in the City and circuses outside of it.
These are the parts of a theatre: the curved, open, 01'cbestra,3 the gradients which wrap around this area, and the
elevated plllpitWll at the squared end of the orcbestra where
the things pertaining to the play are located. Also, at the highest parts of the theatre are the portico and roof where the
voices are reflected with resonance, making them pleasant to
the ear. 38 However, Greek theatres differ from Latin theatres in
tlus respect: the actors and chonIS perform in the orcbestra
and need only a small plllpitU111; in ours,39 all the playing of
tile drama takes place on the plllpUll111 and for this reason a
more spacious one is required.
In this there is perfect agreement, that in the beginning a
senJ.icircle is inscribed in the orcbestra from which the horns
are extended, however some in straight and some in curved
lines. Those which are straight are set equidistant from each
other and are extended one quarter tile diameter of the senucircle. Those which are curved are drawn out as a complete
circle with one quarter of its circumference removed, and
what remains is left for the theatre platform. 4o
Having deternJ.ined the linJ.its of the orcbestra, the gradients for tile seats are laid out. The first tlJ.ing to consider is how
lugh to build the gradients. Regarding this height, it is necessary to deternJ.ine how much space is required at the base. In
most theatres, the height is equal to the orcbestraY The reason for tlJ.is is that in the lower theatres, the voices are weakened and fade away, willie they are stronger and clearer in the
higher ones. However, anlOng the best were those whose
height was four fifths tile width of the orcbestra. But, of all
those made, none had a height less than one half nor more
than two thirdsY
Sometimes the seating gradients were made as lugh as
they were wide'3 and sometimes by two fifths. I shall design
them as I tlunk correct and proper for everyone!4 The last

Nec fuemlllliquido pulpila I'lIbm croco.
lllic quas lulerr/lllllelllOrosa palalia frolldes Silllplicil posilae:
Senella sille arlefuil.
III gmdibus sedil populus de cespilefaclis:
Qualibel birsulafrollde legenle cOlllas.
26. Romulus and Remus were the legendary founders of Rome.
2 . The reference to Romulus means early Rome. as Romulus was its
mvthological founder. and the Sabine woman is his Wife, Hersilie,
who was instrumental in the defense of Rome again t the Sabines.
28. I.e.. the l'elari/I11/, or large canopy. which was suspended abol'e the entire
caCert in the wamler months to protect the audience from the sun.
29. This probably refers to a practice described by Lucan, Book IX:
...As when mighty Rome's spectators meet
In the full theatre's seat.
At once, by secret pipes and channels fed,
Rich tinctures gush from el'eI)' head;
At'Once ten thousand saffron currents flow,
And rain their odors on the crowd below
30. Jolaus was the half brother, companion at amlS, and charioteer of
Hercules.
31. From Thespiae to ~Iount Helicon the Muses were known as the
Thespiades. Hercules gave his first wife, Megara, to lolcus in grati-

tude for his services. ~Iegara, the daughter of Creon, king of Thebes,
had been given to Hercules for freeing his domain from tribute to
Eriginus of Orchomenus. Creon also feted Hercules with entertainments (i.e. Thespiades). The connection Alberti makes here between
these two el'ents has not been clarified by any works consulted.
32. The Theatre of Pompey, 55 B.c., was the first permanent theatre built
in Rome. Recent excavations have discovered its foundations and
other parts.
33. The three theatres in Rome were the theatres of Pompey (55 B.C),
Comelius Balbus (13 B.C.), and ~Iarcellus, built dUring the reign of
Caesar Augustus. The theatre of Marcellus still stands, a few minutes
walk from the Forum, and survives as an apartment house.
34. The Circus Maximus survil'es only as archeological ruins. The other
amphitheatre, the Colosseum, still stands at the most famous monument of ancient Rome.
35. Latin, mela: An obelisk shaped post mark in the Roman circus. Melae
toad un ~itherend ohhe rpiTTe or elongated i land in the center of
the Circus ~Iaximus, which marked the limits of the race course.
36. Latin: su1I1 qui dicrtlll veleres illler ellses & f/ulllilla lali sese ludo
solilos e.l'erceri: eaque re circellses nOlllillalos.
37. Alberti refers to the orchestra as the areae lIIedianae, or "central
area." For clarity, this has been translated throughout as "orchestra".
TD&T

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1998 - 5
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