Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 57

tech EXPO
1999

AHOMEMADE
CNC ROUTER
- - - - Adrialle M. Levy
Yale School of
DramalYaIe
Repertol}' Theatre

The scenic design for the Yale Repertory Theatre 1998 production of Tbe Cure at Tro)' consisted mainly
of a large, highly contoured deck carved out of laminated sheets of 2-inch thick polystyrene foam. For
this project, we built a ··computer numerical control" (Ct\C) router to help cut out the 2000 different
foam shapes needed to construct the deck. The follo\\ing article is an overview of how our C~C router
worked and how we built it.
ACNC router works on (he same principle as a pen plotter. Instead of moving a pen, servomotors
move a router that cuts out shapes as (hey are drawn. For our project, we used a Va" drill bit as the ··pen"
and 4' x8' sheets of 2-inch thick foam as the "paper." The C IC roUler we built had two axes of motion: it
could move in the x-direction (left to right) and in the y-direction (bottom to top). Our router did not
have the ability to move in the z-direction, which would have been eqluvalent to picking the router up off
the foanl and then plunging it back in somewhere else. Due to this limitation, each cut had to be a continuous line that started and finished off the edge of the sheet of foam.
A2-axis motion controller from the Galil Company served as the brain for our CNC router. The motion controller is able to create a motion profile based on a digital motion control progranl (OMC) and
feedback from encoders on the x-axis and y-axis motors driving the router. Galil also prO\~des a software
package called "CAD-to-OMC" which translates computer-drafted drawing interchange files (OXF) into
the proper Galil OMC commands. These conmlands are tilen executed by tile controllel; which, in tum, produces motion. By using this software, we were able to draw tile pieces we wanted to cut out in AutoCAD and ilien
convert tile drawing files into conmlands timt were readable by tile motion controller. The Galil CAD-to-OMC
program also includes a series of macros for the motion controller, which tell it where to start, ilie unit of
scale, on which side of the line to cut and acceleration and deceleration information.
In the AutoCAD draWings we created, we laid out ilie shapes to
be cut on 4' x 8' rectangles, which represented ilie sheets of foam.
The lines in each dra\~ng represented the cutting lines for ilie
router. We inserted blocks iliat contained ilie macro information
for the motion controller into tile dra\\~g files and saved the drawings in OXF format so we could make ilie CAD-to-OMC transfer. In
order to make the OMC files read correctly, it was necessary to
draw tile lines in the AutoCAD draWings as continuous polylines.
To build tile CNC router, we began by bolting a square piece of
Plexiglas to the router bed of a 2hp Porter Cable router. One edge
of the Plexiglas was bolted to two linear bearings iliat ran on a 1W'
diameter cold-rolled steel shaft. UHMW pads mounted on the other
edge of the Plexiglas glided along a length of steel angle iron. A
small franle was mounted onto the Plexiglas, to which was attached
a tooilied belt loop. Tllis belt drove the router assembly on tile shaft
and angle iron and gave us motion in ilie x direction. Three vgroove cam followers were mounted onto
steel plates, which were ilien welded onto
either end of ilie shaft and angle iron. The
canl followers were gUided by a diagonally
oriented piece of 1W' square steel tube.
These cam followers enabled us to move
tlle x-axis frame, also driven by tootlled
belt loops, in ilie y-axis.
To get tile precision we needed for
ilie motion profile, we attached a servomotor and an encoder to one end of bOtil
the x-axis frame and ilie y-axis frame. We
mounted the encoder in line witil ilie motor shaft so that one turn of ilie motor produced one nlrn of the encoder shaft. The
feedback from each encoder was sent to ilie
motion controllet: Each motor was also
TZ>&T

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 12
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 31
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 33
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 37
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 42
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 49
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 51
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 53
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 56
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 1999 - 57
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