Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 49

mechanized

flat wing

SCenechange:
thcourt theatres
of

Gripsholm, Cesky- Krumlov, and Drottningholm
by

ers, and sliding Serlian-style wings. Although there are
no detailed illustrations or descriptions of the earliest
flat wing stages, by at least the middle of the seventeenth century the stages had become mechanized to
enable fast coordinated wing changes. The typical seventeenth century mechanized flat wing scene change
is shown in figure 1. It consisted of a series of trolleys
rolling on tracks in the substage area. Wing frames or
poles (hence the name "pole and chariot") extended
from the trolleys through slots in the stage floor to
support scenic flats. The scenic flats rested in hooks
attached to the wing frames. The onstage ends of the
trolleys to be moved onstage were attached with ropes
to a central shaft' and the offstage ends of the trolleys,
operating in pairs, were connected to each other via
direction-changing pulleys.
When the central shaft was revolved (often by use of
a falling counterweight) the trolley ropes were wrapped
around the shaft and as one trolley of each pair was
pulled onstage, the other trolley was pulled offstage. This
type of mechanism is shown in a number of seventeenth
and eighteenth cennlry drawings.'
No seventeenth century theatre exists with its stage
machinelY intact. Of the extant eighteenth centllly theatres, only the three theatres discussed in this article still
retain their oliginal stage machinely. Although each of
these theatres accomplished the same end-mO\~ng scenic \\wgs on and off stage-there are Significant differences in their details and operation.
TIle unique elements related to the wing change include:
The number of wings. Figure 2 shows that number of banks of \\~ngs in the three extant theatres varies

Frank Mohler

from four to sb:: banks. Each bank contains from two to
four wings:
o.ofbanks No. of wingslbarik
2
Gripsholm
4
CeskY Krumlov
3-4
5
Drottningholm
2-4
6
It should be noted that CeskY Krumlov has more
wings in the upstage banks and Drottningholm has more
wings in the downstage banks.
The type of drive. The most Significant difference
between the machinely in these theatres is the type of
de~ce used to pro~de the motivation for the change.
The drive pro~des the mechanical advantage for moving
the wing trolleys. Although many seventeenth and eighteenth century theatres utilized counterweights to move
scenery, the extant machinely at CeskY Krumlov,
Drottningholm, and Gripsholm do not utilize counterweights to assist the wing change.
The width of the slot. The flat wing change required slots in the stage floor for the passage of each
pole or \\wg ladder. The \\~dth of the slot was a function
of the type of removable \~g ladder.; It should be noted
that each of these extant theatres used wing frames
rather than poles to support the \~ngs.
The Scenery Guide. The wing frames in the
Swedish theatres included a guide at the top of the wing
frames to prevent adjacent wings from interfering with
each other.
The Type of Wheel. The wheels of the trolleys
supporting the wing franles are either grooved wheels
riding on rails or flat wheels mo~ng between tracks. 6
T'Z>&T

WIN T

E R

1 9

9

9

47



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 6
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 8
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 76
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