Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 55

The stage of the Court
Theatre at Drottningholm
Palace. Photo by Bengt
Wanselius; courtesy
Drottningholms
teatermuseum.

The Drottningholm Theatre Wing Change

The Court Theatre at Drottningholm Palace

The best known and most frequently used wing changing
machinery is that at the Drottningholm Theatre, since it is
still used for opera production during the summer
months. Tltis machinel)' is also the most unique, bearing
little resemblance to the other extant Baroque wing
changing machinel)'. This was not always the case. A
I 54 dra\\~ng of an earlier theatre at Drottningholm Palaces (see photo print on page 50) shows a \\~nch-oper-
ated central shaft wing changing mechanism very sintilar
to the one used at CeskY Krumlov. When the
Drottningholm Theatre was rebuilt after being destroyed
by a fire, the current machinel)' was installed. The 1766
machinel)' at Drottningholm uses a vertical capstan located far downstage, thus keeping the central portion of
the substage area free from obstructions (see photo on
page 52). Other examples of the
use of a vertical capstan for wing
changes exist in manuscripts and
publications from the seventeenth
and eighteenth centuries 9
Traditionally Donato Stopani,
an Italian machinist, has been
given credi t for the installation of
the stage machinel)' in the 1766
Drottningholm Theatre. The only known use of or reference to the vertical capstan for a flat wing change in Italy
is by lotta but its use was to pro~de the force to turn a
central shaft. It should be noted that Motta describes a
number of different types of de\~ces to change the scenic
wings, few of which are knO\m to have been used in actual theatres.
Per Edstrom of the Arena Theatre Institute in Sweden has pointed out to me that there is a stronger candidate than Stopani for the creation of the Drottningholm
stage macltinel)'. In 1755 George Froman, master builder

Drottningholm, the best documented of the three extant theatres, was the second theatre built on the site. The palace was built as a summer residence from 1662-86 on
tlle outskirts of Stockholm. Queen Louisa lrika built the first theatre at the palace in
1754. This theatre burned down in 1762 and two years later architect Fredrik
Adelcrantz began tlle construction of a new theatre on tlle same foundations. The
new theatre was inaugurated before it was finished in 1766.
King Gustavus III succeeded to the tllrone and in 17 7 he bought Drottningholm
Palace from his mother. Known as the "theatre king," he wrote for and performed in
his court tlleatres. FolJo\\IDg his assassination in 1 92, interest in theatre declined at
court and \~tll tlle exception of a few performances in the eighteen fifties, the theatre
was used for otller purposes. In 1921 Agne Beijer discovered the still intact scenery
and macltinery and received perntission to restore the tlleatre. It reopened in August
1922. During the summer months the theatre is used for opera productions using its
original SCenel)' and machinel)' and has become a major tourist attraction. 14

When the Drottningholm Theatre was
rebuilt after being destroyed by a fire,
the current machinery was installed.
for the Swedish court, visited theatres in northern Europe
and sketched a variety of stage machinel)'.IO One of these
drawings shows the wing changing mechanism at the
Dresden Opera House (see photo pl;nt on page 52). Tltis
machinery is vel)' similar to that at Drottningholm. Avertical capstan is used to \\~nd up a rope that turns a vertical shaft consisting of a drum for the rope and a
lantern-style pinion gear uni!." The pinion gear meshes
with teeth of a spur gear on a second vertical shaft providing an additional mechanical advantage for the system. This second vertical shaft also has a drum to wind
TZ>&T

WIN T

E R

I

9

9

9

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 1999 - 16
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