Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 22

two types of communication: the intellectual communication of ideas through the signs and symbols of words, and
the "inner life," which is communicated through the music embedded within the vocalization of the performer.
The general assumption seems to be that the ideas of a
play give birth to the musical expression. Appia suggests
that the nature of drama is the other way around-language gives a practical dramatic form to the musical
manifestation of the play's inner life.
This is a very important distinction, because so often we presume that the function of theatre is intellectual discourse, not the conveyance of the inner essence
of human existence. Therefore, we start our discussions
of theatre and plays by boiling down the intellectual discourse to "themes" and other "ideas." We force our students to read plays rather than experience them.
Unfortunately, the music of the play only communicates
through experience, and a script without performance
tends to emphasize communication of intellectual ideas.
We teach students in our classes that the theme of
Antigone is "the conflict between divine law and human

the musicality of the poetry is dictated by notated music,
and creates the inner life powering the literal meaning of
the words which the actor must follow. However, in the
world of spoken word plays, the ideas are fixed, but the
actors interpret the music in their speech melodies, vocal inflections, etc. Our problem then, is that it is easy to
presume that the music, which does not exist in written
form as it does in opera or musical comedy, is dictated by
the intellectual ideas of the words. However, the opposite
is clearly the case. The poet in the dramatist takes great
care to construct the speech to communicate that inner life by fitting the words to the music of the poetry,
not the other way around. When Shakespeare wrote
in iambic pentameter, he forced himself to fit the
meaning to the music. It does not make a difference
whether it is Shakespeare or Williams, or Mamet or
Fugard. The poet in all great dramatists fits the words
to the music. Therefore, even in the language of spoken text plays, we understand an a priori existence of
the music of the inner life before the intellectual communication of the words.

Music expresses that inner life directly, and
is incapable of expressing anything but the
inner life.
law," or that the theme of Macbeth is that "too much ambition leads to self destruction." We then test our students' ability to understand the plays by their ability to
squeeze a theme out of the play. In doing so, we tend to
squeeze the (inner) life right out of the play.
Appia seemed to reinforce this idea when he says,
"the dramatist who uses only the spoken word appeals
only to our understanding." (Appia 1962, 15) Certainly,
there is a communication afforded by language that permits the transfer of intellectual ideas from one party to
another. However, in theatre, this intellectual communication takes on a special character that is quite different
from the discourse of the sciences, or law, for example.
Theatre connects intellectual communication to the soul,
or the inner life of the characters in a play. This special
connection is at the heart of the theatre experience, and
music is the single most important force that makes that
connection.
A symphonic performance can create the inner life
directly in an audience with just music. Drama attaches
important ideas to a similar "inner life" in the minds of
the audience. Unlike the symphony, the instigator and
primary conveyer of this complex communication in
drama is the actor.
In opera and a great part of the modern musical,

Theatre springs from the inner life that music provides, and theatre associates that inner life with an intellectual discourse that brings profound enlightenment to
humanity's most fundamental questions. The moment we
accept the primal role that music in its broadest sense
plays in instigating the drama, we open ourselves to the
approach that music in its more audible manifestation
must play in the drama.

THE FUNCTION OF SOUND IN DRAMA
Historical Background

W

hen we examine some of the historical perspectives regarding the function of sound in the theatre
we discover a multitude of attempts to define that function. Harold Burris-Meyer provided the first attempt at
codifying the functions of sound in the drama in his landmark text, Sound in the Theatre. He defined eight functions for sound in the theatre:
1. To transmit the human voice in speech or song
(adequate audibility is always the first
requisite);
2. To establish locale (bird songs, traffic noises);
3. To establish atmosphere (wind and rain);
TD & T

W I N T E R

2 0 0 1

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 12
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