Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 24

rainstorm with distant thunder poses the
threat of a more violent storm to come. And
just as a person who is friendly and warm
makes you feel relaxed, the tempo, rhythm and
muffled lull of a gentle rain can be soothing
and comforting...A jungle can elicit many
sorts of emotions....But without very specific
consideration about the dramatic and emotional impact you want your sound to make,
the finished sound design will become chaotic.
(Kaye 1992, 12)
Clearly one can infer from the above that these authors together place a special importance on the power
of sound to make an audience feel something. Upon
closer examination, the importance of the first two categories diminishes further in comparison with the third.

orchestration. So, in the end, any manipulation of the
actor's voice must necessarily be part of the music, and
serve the same function as the music.
Recreating sounds as they naturally occur is a much
more problematic and complex issue.

Appia and Scenic Illusion

A

ppia argues forcibly that "there can be no such
thing as scenic illusion." (Appia 1962, 34) He
argues that "whenever we do use the term we are referring either to the illusion of reality produced by the
setting or that which is created by the actors. But it
cannot be both at the same time, for although they are
not always mutually exclusive, these two sources of
scenic illusion have nothing in common." (Appia
1962, 34) He adds, "During the performance, the audience is presumed not to be aware that the same roof

A loudspeaker is not the source of sound in the
same way that a fresnel is the source of light.

Manipulating the Actor's Voice

G

enerally speaking, amplifying and recording the
human voice is not so much a function of sound,
as it is a function of sound equipment. A loudspeaker is
not the source of sound in the same way that a fresnel is
the source of light. The source is still the actor's voice,
and the function of the sound of the actor's voice does
not change. Of course, a common practice in amplifying
and recording the actor's voice is the manipulation of the
sonic qualities of the actor's voice. However, when one
examines the purpose in such manipulations, one invariably concludes that the manipulations are typically made
to influence the emotional content of the drama. Why
does Darth Vader's voice need to be so low? To convince
the audience that this is the way he speaks? It is more
likely that the director and sound designer understood
the ability of the rich low voice to condition the audience
emotionally.
There is a greater danger in the existence of this category, however. Separating the actor's voice-whether
manipulated or not-functionally from the music of the
soundscape is the first step towards disassociating the
soundscape from the inner life. The previous section on
music and language discussed the musical component of
spoken text. The actor's voice is part of the music, and
that part must therefore have the same function as the
music. Rather than treat it as a separate element, we need
to learn to treat the actor's voice as part of the music,
e.g., as the melody to which the soundscape provides the

which shelters them [the audience] also covers the actors in the strange world of the stage." (Appia 1962, 51)
Appia rejects the idea that the proscenium frame could
effectively focus the attention of the audience on the mise
en scene, and describes the imposed boundaries of stage
floor, wings and borders as "an infamous practical joke."
(Appia 1962, 55)
Scenic illusion in sound is even more blatantly false
and distracting. While lighting can be used in the visual
realm to help remove the obviousness of the artifice-
the theatre building, the audience, etc.-we have not
found a way to remove the acoustic signature of the hall
from the sonic scenic illusion, nor of eliminating the ambient noise of the audience. Every time we introduce a
sound effect masquerading as a real sound, we jerk the
audience out of the performance by the incongruity of the
acoustic signature of the theatre environment. The illusion of the car sound effect that drives up in the mise en
scene is ruined by the inescapable truth that the car
sounds like it is entering backstage.
Appia further argues that scenic illusion is required only to "satisfy the tastes of the average audience..." that "true art never tries to deceive..." and
yet "the average audience will always ask to be deceived." (Appia 1962, 33) Music compels the audience
to transcend this hurdle because it "sweeps the audience
along with the sheer force of its own rhythm. And in so
doing it fulfills man's need-a need in most cases impossible to satisfy-to escape from himself in order to find
TD & T

W I N T E R

2 0 0 1

23



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 12
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 14
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