Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 26

In the final analysis, using sound to communicate intellectual ideas
is for all practical purposes impossible beyond simple, rudimentary and
typically iconic uses.
If communicating intellectual ideas is so limited and impractical
in theatre, why do so many playwrights populate their plays with
natural sound? Appia may be correct in suggesting that theatrical
productions cater to the "tastes of the average audience," but experience has also shown that productions whose sonic objective is solely theatrical illusion are almost never remembered for their outstanding sound
designs. Outstanding sound designs that use so-called "naturalistic
sound" are almost always remembered for their ability to affect the emotional state of an audience. Natural sound is not so much the function of
sound in the drama as it is a style employed to allow sound to affect the
emotional state of the audience.
Consider, for example, one of the most powerful uses of a natural
sound in a classic American play, the signature sound of Tennessee Williams' A Streetcar Named Desire. When Blanche first talks about the loss
of Belle Reve, we are overwhelmed with the sound of a streetcar passing
by. Sure, Williams uses the sound of the streetcar because it perfectly fits
the style and setting of the play. However, he does not use the streetcar to
tell the audience that a streetcar has gone by, or to tell them that the
Kowalski family lives near a streetcar line-these things are immaterial
to the heart of the play. Instead, he uses the overwhelming power of the
streetcar to make his audience feel the power of a streetcar named desire, and to associate that power with the controlling emotions lurking
within the character of Blanche Dubois.

The Function of the Soundscape

W

hen we consider the special power that music has, we begin to
suspect that sound has one function that must reign over all others.
We have already explored Schopenhauer's observation that "Music
never expresses the phenomenon but only the inner essence of the phenomenon." (Schopenhauer 1911, 308] Appia suggested something even
more potent: "the poet-musician, thanks to the music, presents us not
only with external effects of emotions...but with the emotions themselves." (Appia 1962, 16) He suggested that this special power of music
extends through the actors and beyond:
Put a character in that setting (the walls of a room), and let
five minutes' worth of music suggest a mood to him, some
manner of acting, it matters not what-or simply let the music flow over his physical presence like some evanescent liquid, and suddenly the atmosphere takes on life, the setting
becomes expressive; and the walls of the room, because they
are not a part of this expression, cease to exist. (Appia
1962, 59)

GRT Genesis; PMS185;
p/u fall00 p. 52;
drop rules

We have seen that sound is not particularly adept at communicating
intellectual ideas, in the same way that language does, or in the same way
that a "picture is worth a thousand words." If the dramatic experience
starts with a musical impulse, to which the poet provides a practical dramatic form, then music is the direct agent of the cathartic experience.
The soundscape attains it highest and most effective purpose when it
serves this very critical and singular function:
the soundscape makes us feel a certain way about the
world we are experiencing.
TD & T

W I N T E R

2 0 0 1

25



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 13
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