Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 40

house the costume shops although more often the costumes are made at shops in
people's homes. After much negotiating and explanations about the "Americana
professor," we finally get into the workshop of Grande Rio. It is utter visual confusion and there is barely enough room to walk around. We squeeze between
floats in various stages of construction-workers have painted some, some are
still just the steel frames. We thread our way around a big yellow dome that looks
like half of a decorated Easter egg (I later find out it is a large skirt) and past a
frame with cow skulls on it. One float has robotic figures and one has what appears
to be a fifteen-foot radio. I even see a miniature Big Ben. I have no idea how this all
goes together.
On the second floor, sculptors are carving heads the size of Volkswagen
Beetles out of polystyrene and other workers are cutting stack after stack of leaves
from green felt. The costume shop cutting room is on one side, and up a narrow
staircase, several seamstresses are sewing miles of yellow ruffles. Augusto, the costume shop manager, told me they had bought eleven miles of fabric for the ruffles.
He also explained that they were very behind this year because of a disputed judgment the year before which held up their funding. They hadn't been able to start
until January 4. This was January 22 and they had four hundred costumes to make
in three weeks.
During the next couple of weeks, I visited six more workshops-Viradouro,
Beija-Flor, Salgueiro and Imperatriz in the Special Group, Cabaçu from Group A
and Tuiuti from Group B. The equipment and techniques used differed widely, a
clear reflection of amounts of money each school had to spend. Grande Rio is at the
lower end of schools in the Special Group and their floats are fairly basic-mostly
polystyrene carvings covered with papier-mâché. Viradouro, a step up, has a special screen printing area for creating their own fabrics. Beija-Flor, which uses special effects on its floats including a twenty-foot waterfall, is the most computerized.

Top: Grande Rio in the
parade.
Above: The Grande Rio
workshop.
Left: Head for the Radio
Float being painted by
James, a scene painter in
the Grande Rio
workshop.

their knowledge. This group of workers for Salgueiro
are now the group of top designers that work for the
other schools. Joaosinho Trinta, Rosa Margalhães,
Renato Lage from Mocidade, Max Lopes, Maria Augusta-many of these were my students at the school of
fine arts and I took them to the carnival shops to learn
about popular culture.
At that time, one could not make a theme without
consulting the community. This would be about something important to the community and the theme was
submitted to a meeting of the whole community to be
accepted or not for the parade.
So the main difference in the evolution is that it
changed to a much more professional way of doing
things. This has many consequences in many ways, including the choice of the theme. When I left Salgueiro
twenty years ago, I was never a professional. I never
earned money from the parade. Instead, I gave some of
my money to make the parade. I thought that it was research about folk art, not a job for me.
And so all the others became professional and
asked for a lot of money to make the parade. One of
them, Mario Montero, asked Portela for R$100,000
[about US$50,000] to design the parade-for three
months work designing the parade!
TR: Did he get it?
FP: Yes. So the designers became not a person from the community knowing the community, but like a soccer coach
who can be hired by any club. They can move to any
other school. He doesn't really know his team, he just
has to create the design of the carnival. I believe you will
see a big parade and I believe that if you go back to the
school of samba-he [the designer] doesn't know anything about his school.
It's a spectacle. It is an international show. It is no
longer an original expression of the community who
during all the year sings samba, not samba enredo, but
samba-like jazz-in a little place like your back
yard-and the thing went on naturally. Today, the composers work especially for the parade and some are
paid for that and all the sambas have become the same.
In a meeting of samba people, I challenged the
people there from Mangueira and Salgueiro: I want you
to sing me one single samba from the last five years outTD & T

W I N T E R

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39



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2001 - 18
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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