Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 47

Figure 18. Illustration for Il Granchio (The Crab)

fanciful lower playing area. The venue is Rome,
as indicated by Bramante's Tempietto stage-left.
There is no evidence that this or others like it
were ever actually done as the multiple perspective does not work. It would find a venue later,
however, in the streets of the Teatro Olimpico
where multiple vanishing points were resolved
by using more than one arch for each street.

* Antonio San Gallo
This sketch (fig. 17) introduces a new element
in the Renaissance stage: mutable scenery. San
Gallo's sketch of a ground plan in the upper left
of the drawing shows a "teatro" or "place to sit"
[Gr. Theatron], with an "amfiteatro" in front
of it. The "amfiteatro" is actually an orchestra.
Further on is a playing space flanked by periaktoi and a "teatro" [scaena frons] is behind it.
This appears to be an attempt to reconstruct a
Vitruvian theatre which is represented in the
perspective drawing in the lower right corner. A
large periaktoi hovers above the stage-left wing
of the drawing example of the machine. Despite
its misinterpretation of Vitruvius, it is the first
drawing of the period to entertain the idea of
changing scenes.

* Baldassare Lanci
Also known as Baldassare da Urbino, Baldassare Lanci was an Italian architect, engineer,
THEATRE

46

DESIGN

&

and scenographer who was born in Urbino in
1510 and died in Florence in 1571. He was a
student of Girolamo Genga and in his youth he
worked with the master in Urbino. By 1560 he
had become the "Architect of the Illustrious of
Florence" Cosimo I.
Elena Povoledo says this about him: "As
senographer and engineer, Lanci was truly one
of the most authorative masters of the Renaissance. He truly conceived some of the fundamental elements of "Italian Scenography": (1)
the scenic view and origin of the scenic arch;
(2) the unification of the "tragic scene" and the
"comic scene" in a single "urban view," transforming the court atmosphere of court celebrations to a celebration of the ducal city; and (3)
the invention of changeable scenery." (Enciclopedia, 1192-94)
By scenic view, Povoledo means the whole
incorporation of the set into one unit, or as she
says in item number two, a single "urban view."
In Il Granchio26 [The Crab] (fig. 18) the scene
continues without a break or vista bounded by
shops or other architecture. A bridge continues
from the playing space in the forestage to scenery up-stage. Without plans, it is not possible to
see exactly how this was done.
The illustration here is not a set design but

TECHNOLOGY
SUMMER

2007

an illustration that was published with text of the
play in 1566. Also, at least some of the work,
particularly the machines, was done by Vasari.

* Giorgio Vasari
Giorgio Vasari (1511-74) organized and designed spectacles and pageants for his patrons
between 1536 and 1566. His Lives of the Artists
is the most important source for information on
other artists of the period. That his work contributed greatly to Il Granchio has caused some
to give him credit for the entire design.
The forestage of Il Granchio is clearly in
the style of Peruzzi's I Bacchidi. The upper forestage wraps around a lower forestage, flanking
it with buildings. The lower is decorated and
was undoubtedly used for the intermezzi which
were an important feature of the performance.
This portion of the design is so similar to Peruzzi's that the two could be interchanged with no
remarkable change in the ground-plans.
Elena Povoledo continues: "In Il Granchio
(keeping in mind the uncertainty of the attribution27) the scene represented Florence and may
have changed partially at the end to display the
hills of Fiesole. The stage advanced laterally in
two forward wings decorated with scenic houses. The area above was decorated with a floral
festoon with an emblem of a crab. There was a



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2007 - 6
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