Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 17

up-from Tariq Anwar, the editor of The Madness of King
George. Coming from the theater, Hytner at first directed only
long shot sequences in wide view, moving characters around a
room as if they were on a stage. At the end of the first few days,
Anwar came to him in despair because he had no shots to edit
together to match the dialogue or create an interesting story. By
the time Hytner directed The History Boys he was in command
of moving the camera, and the absolute importance of the close
up. "Although stage acting requires more craft, the imaginative
engagement with a part that a film actor plays has to be more
intense than the stage actor...it is only the working of the imagination that's going to be seen in a close up" (Hytner 2008).
The importance of close ups and medium shots dictates
many design decisions. Although the same environment will be
shown in long shots, design must be scaled to accommodate
the human head in close up. Production designers carefully
calculate the area each type of lens will capture. This relationship is most obvious on news or interview sets where the host's
head and a monitor or logo must share camera space. The production designer's greatest concern in this situation is one of
scale and texture. "Items close up-the actor's face-must be
the higher contrast or the brighter image," writes Terry Byrne
(Byrne 1993).
The importance of the close up is an important factor for
costume designers. Explains James Acheson "In film you always
spend your money above the waist in the hopes it will be noticed" (Acheson 2008). Framing the face subtly is more important in film and television than live performance. But the close
up also exaggerates elements, such as earrings that may swing,
unintentionally stealing focus from the actor. The real estate an
item takes up-or proportion of the screen-will seem disproportionately large. Some costume designers advise against
strapless gowns because a close up will actually show nothing
but bare shoulders, making an actress look naked.
Another type of shot determines design requirements for
production designers. "The long tracking shot is the one form
of camera movement that has the greatest impact on the production design. The set must be planned to accommodate the
camera dolly or track without permitting the passage of the dolly thru the set to be apparent in the shot. In addition, the layout
of the set and the placement of things in shot must be paced in
such a way as to appear at the correct moment" (Byrne 1993).

While camera focal length and location determine the
structure of the production environment, color is a powerful
tool in the final image. Film and TV cameras do not process
color the same way as the human eye. The specific use of color
and the technical requirements of working with different media
such as film stock, digital filming, filters, and video recording is
a huge topic and much is written to help those interested in the
subject. But those color requirements, too, always begin with
the human face.
It is important to pick a background that will complement
the face. A mixture of skin tones on the set will require careful calibration of camera equipment, lighting and production
design. One scene in The Fall beautifully illustrates the use of
a complementary color scheme keyed on the actor's skin tone.
His warm tone and the orange of his costume pull the actor-
and the steps he stands on-forward in focus, even though he
is placed further into the scene.
Learning the use of color and contrast in film and TV design is a crucial aspect of the designers' expertise. It is so important that color tests must be done to adequately assess the
final product. Digital cameras make this process more immediate as the real picture is available on the set. With traditional
film, a video feed creates the on-set monitor. It is useful for
checking framing, focus and acting, but it is not the final look
as it will appear on developed film stock. Designers and directors had to wait until the film could be processed and shown
as "dailies." Since each camera is unique, designers eventually
learn by experience and rigorous camera tests.

TECHNOLOGY: INVISIBLE OR INVINCIBLE?
Many design rules are shifting to accommodate the latest technology: High Definition video. Besides its remarkable ability to
transmit detail and depth, the actual ratio of height to width is
much wider than the standard aspect ratio in use. While the
traditional TV aspect ratio is three units high by four units wide,
HDTV is nine units high by sixteen units wide. (Gordon 1996)
Bob Vukasovich explains that "HDTV is a whole new level of detail and it has expanded the sides of the picture. Directors continue to direct for the regular TV ratio, but we have to design
for the HD ratio. We design the wider environment, because the
camera could end up somewhere you didn't think of. It seems
as if they always end up shooting the four feet I didn't think

We design the wider
because the

environmet,

camera could end up
somewhere

you didn't think of.
16

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technology

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 6
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