Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 18

they'd use." James Acheson mourns the new level of HD detail.
Famous for using theatrical tricks successfully on film, he wistfully surmises "Looking to the future of film with high definition
cameras, I'm going to be found out" (Acheson 2008).
Some designers think TV and film designers have a great
deal more control over visual images than the stage designer.
The film designer is not constrained by audience sight lines
since the camera will move into the story environment. The
final shot composition, however, is in the hands of the director, cinematographer and the camera operators. Terry Byrne
advises "the best the designer can do is to sit at the director's
elbow and advise, or cajole" (Byrne 1993). However, it is the
designer's job to anticipate as many situations and camera angles as possible.

DESIGN FOR VIDEO GAMES
What exactly is a video game designer? In a relatively young
entertainment form, this term has been applied to the content
developer, the programmers who manipulate the code to create
mechanics, or the concept artists who "skin" the virtual world
and create the characters. Game development is a complex
web of interdependent functions, requiring a delicate balance
of visual elements, actions and performance speed. Like films,
games are created by very large teams, and the term "game
designer" is a relatively new position. As currently used, the
designer is the person responsible for building the game content overall or for specific levels. Many game designers have a
specialty for a game genre: sports designer, role playing games,
or first-person shooters.
The terms "art director" and "game artist" are also
used, denoting many types of visual artists creating the overall
look or "art assets"--character models and textures, environmental and prop modeling and textures, character animation,
special effects (Meigs 2003). A look at the struggle to quantify
these roles is instructive, even as the game contributors begin to fight for formal credit listing on released projects. The
terms reveal an industry caught between the roles of art and
commerce. For the purposes of this discussion, I will look at
the large topic of game design for its similarities to other entertainment media, such as the spatial and visual structure of
the virtual world and the characters that inhabit this world.
Once stereotyped as a small social subset, who is the
current audience for video games? In 2004 game sales shook
the traditional entertainment world by surpassing movie ticket sales. Games again snapped at the heels of prized movie
studio releases in August 2007 when the first day of Microsoft's Halo 3 sales was predicted to reach $155 million, while
blockbuster Spiderman opening weekend box office grosses
tallied $151 million (Graser 2007). Recent industry figures
revealed at the New York Game Conference assess the current
game population. "A lot more women are becoming involved
with gaming, mainly thanks to the Nintendo Wii, which sports
a sixty percent share of women players. Overall though, the
amount of women and men playing games has almost reached

a balance point, and gaming in general has become ever more
a part of America's daily lifestyle with fifty-nine percent of
the U.S. population playing games." If this is not enough to
convince us games are an undeniable factor in entertainment,
consider that "today, kids have no concept of a world without
online interaction. Even when they're younger they have sites
like Webkins or Club Penguin to get them started in virtual
worlds" (Sikora 2008).

CREATIVITY AND COMMERCIAL INTENT
While video games have revolutionized storytelling structures,
it actually has more in common with film, television and
theme park storytelling techniques than is apparent at first
glance. Games, film and TV rely on some form of hardware
to transmit the narrative. Video games in some cases adapted
the language of film to describe some mechanics, such as the
location of the "camera" when creating virtual environments,
although there is no actual camera recording the action. That
term has come to mean the angle of view-is the "camera"
looking down on a figure or upwards toward the ceiling? In
many respects, however, designing virtual worlds has much in
common with designing themed entertainment. Don Carson,
a designer working in theme parks and computer games, says
the objectives are the same for both fields "How do I draw my

THE FALL, use of complementary color scheme. Photo by Ged
Clarke and Tarsem.

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2008 - 6
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