Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 18

The knife swiTch era
The use of electricity for stage lighting was introduced during
the late nineteenth century. Exposed copper knife switches (the
type that could "zap" you by merely touching them !) mounted
on a vertical insulating panel, such as slate or even marble,
provided simple on-off control of the various lighting circuits.
Eventually, dimming control was introduced by means
of resistance-type dimmers (actually, a specialized form of
"rheostat") and initially these were mounted along the top of
the "switchboard" because they produced a great deal of heat
when their lamp loads were dimmed. (Fig. 1)
The knife switches on the "board" were usually arranged
in color rows since, in that era, the primary sources of light on
stage were footlights and borderlights and these were normally
wired in three color circuits. The most common arrangement

was the "patriotic" red, white, and blue combination (white for
daytime scenes, blue for moonlight, and red for special effects
such as sunsets). Sometimes, amber was added as a fourth
color circuit (green, of course, makes actors look dead !).
Additional switches controlled "pocket" outlets in the wings
and elsewhere to enable the use of portable lighting equipment.
"Bunch" lights consisted of a group of standard lamp sockets
in a large square metal housing on a stand, while a type of light
known as an "olivette" contained a single mogul-type socket
for a high wattage lamp. Also, arc-type lighting devices were
sometimes used for additional brightness. In these, the light was
produced by a brilliant electric arc formed between two carbon
electrodes rather than by a conventional incandescent lamp (the
use of arc follow spots persisted throughout the twentieth century). Pocket circuits that were used exclusively for arc lights were
not equipped with dimmers since "arcs" could not be dimmed.

The knife switches on the "board"were usually arranged in color rows since the primary
sources of light on stage were footlights and borderlights and these were normally
wired in three color circuits.
The "pocket" into which such portable instruments were
plugged consisted of a hollow rectangular porcelain block that
contained two copper contact strips inside. These made contact with two similar strips on a "stage plug" inserted into it.
The stage plug was simple and rugged, and could be made to
handle currents as high as fifty amperes. However, the screw
terminals used for its electrical connections were exposed on
either side and inserting a stage plug into a "hot" pocket with
ungloved hands could prove to be exciting at the very least.
Therefore, they eventually were replaced by the safer pin connector still in use today (also, stage plugs were not adaptable to
three-wire "grounded" circuits). (See Blalock 2002)

Mechanical MasTering

2

1936 Trumbull-G.E. auto-transformer board "saved" in 1994.
Photo by author.

Eventually, in the interest of electrical safety, the knife switches
were located behind the switchboard and were operated by
means of mechanical linkages with insulated levers on the front
of the board.
One such arrangement was known as the "Bull-Dog" type
of switch (named for its manufacturer, the Bull-Dog Electric
Products Company of Detroit) (Fuchs 1929) and this included
a feature that was actually the earliest form of "presetting." A
row of such switches were mounted along a horizontal shaft
attached to a large master lever at one end. Locking "dogs" on
each switch enabled selected switches to be locked to this shaft
so that a single operation of the master lever would close or open
all of those switches (unlocked switches would not be affected).
Therefore, the presetting function consisted of manipulating the locking devices on the individual switches so that the
desired switches would operate when the master lever was
thrown "on cue."

S P R I N G

2008

theatre

design

&

technology

17



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 14
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 18
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