Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 22

In addition to the piano boards, slightly smaller "preset" boards were used as well. Here, the term "preset" had a
very different meaning, however. These contained either eight
750-watt dimmers or twelve 500-watt dimmers. In either case,
the dimmers were wired in two equal groups (four or six dimmers in each group).
These lower wattage dimmers were used to control
single lighting instruments acting as "specials." Each of the
two dimmer groups in a preset board was fed from one of
the larger dimmers in a piano board, which acted as a master
dimmer. When a scene was being played in which none of the
specials that were controlled by a given group of dimmers in a
preset board were needed, the corresponding master dimmer
would be down. Then, the four or six special dimmers could be
"preset" at the proper levels for the next scene in which they
would be needed.
Since the "electricians" travelling with the show would
learn their cues using these portable boards, this same lighting control set-up was retained if and when the show moved
into a Broadway theatre. Consequently, if that theatre actually
still had a permanently installed dimmer board on stage, this
"house board" would probably be used for nothing more than

to control the house lights ! It made no sense to take the time
required to re-train the show electricians to run the cues on the
house board.
The total wattage of a group of dimmers in a preset board
had to match the wattage rating of its master dimmer in the piano
board. This severely complicated the lighting designer's task in
laying out the dimmer hook-up for a show, in addition to having
to match the total load of all the lighting instruments controlled
by a dimmer in a piano board to the rating of that dimmer.
In her classic 1972 book, The Magic of Light, the legendary lighting designer Jean Rosenthal includes detailed
hook-up sheets for the show Hello, Dolly as performed at the
St. James Theatre in New York City in the 1960s. This production required six piano boards having a total of eighty-two dimmers. There were also four preset boards, so that eight of the
main dimmers served as masters for the eight groups in these
boards. Normally, one electrician could be expected to run two
piano boards, along with their associated preset boards. Thus,
this show would have required three electricians to run the
lighting cues. This hook-up controlled a total of three hundred
lighting instrtuments.

ProPorTional MasTering

5

Close-up of Roxy board showing "pre-set" switches.
Courtesy of Theatre Historical Society of America.

The use of a large dimmer in a piano board as a master over
a group of smaller dimmers in a preset board is a concept
known as proportional mastering. This means that the relation
among the different settings of the small dimmers is retained as
the master is run up or down. This feature is not possible with
mechanical mastering since all of the dimmers must be locked
at the same setting.
The disadvantage of proportional mastering, however,
is that the dimmer capacity of the board must effectively be
doubled; that is, in order to master six 1000-watt dimmers, a
6000-watt master must be installed. The expense associated
with this meant that such mastering was very rarely incorporated into permanent boards.
In the 1920s, Stanley McCandless did design a permanently-installed resistance board that included proportional mastering for the theatre at Yale University. The board was actually
built by the Trumbull Company. In order to obtain more usage
of the large master dimmers, McCandless included doublethrow switches so that, if a large dimmer was not needed as a
master, it could be used to feed its own load circuits. In that case,
the special switch connected the small dimmers that it usually
mastered directly to the hot bus. This board remained in use at
Yale into the 1950s (Warfel 1991).
One great advantage of auto-transformer dimmers (besides their greater efficiency) over resistance dimmers was that
they could dim to blackout any lamp load up to their rated capacity. This feature made proportional dimming more attractive
since the master no longer needed to be exactly matched in
capacity to the total of the loads on the dimmers it mastered.
There was still, however, the disadvantage of increased cost

S P R I N G

2008

theatre

design

&

technology

21



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 15
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Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 18
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