Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 28

plot points. It is "an all-encompassing notion of the world that
is being created. A set of rules that will guide the design and
the project team to a common goal. Once you have created this
story you do not break them [the rules] ...if they are broken
your visitors will feel cheated" (Carson)
Creating a story world and its rules may appear obvious,
but it is incredibly difficult to do well, as anyone who has designed a large project can confirm. To maintain consistency and
tone, designers spend much time negotiating the circumstances
that may dilute a story world -budget constraints, logistical
requirements, lack of time, or reluctant execution.

stories in live performance
It is now common for live entertainment to incorporate recorded elements, in particular sound and video. Therefore it may
be beneficial to establish how live performance differs from
recorded entertainment like film, television, and video games.
After talking with designers and directors in all areas of the
industry, I propose to establish three ideas that define design
for live performance. First, the artist and the audience occupy
the same time and place. It is possible for performing artists to
participate via live feeds, but for an event to be considered live
at least one performer should share the time and place with
the audience. Second, the performance time sequence cannot
be altered (replayed or fast forwarded) by the audience. Time
shifting is an established aspect of traditional storytelling but
when the audience jumps forward or backward in the story, or
even creates his or her own story as one can do in video games,
the performance is no longer considered live entertainment.
Third, the visual/ technical aspects are synched with live action;
design events and cues are interconnected with some type of
live triggers (a performer finishing a line, hitting a tape mark
or activating a digital sensor) and that information is not embedded in the media itself as in film or DVD technology.
Live performance can stand alone, as in traditional plays,
operas and dance; it may be contained within other formats
such at themed entertainment attractions or it may interact with
recorded or digital elements. Regardless of its format, live performance most often depends on a pre-determined story.
What constitutes "story" in entertainment is debated by
theorists and critics around the world. Don Carson, a concept
designer working in both themed entertainment and virtual
world design says story is a larger idea than the linear series of

realism vs transformation
Presenting a story as a live theatrical performance encompasses
four large areas of decision making. Defining the poetic space
provides a physical environment and establishes how much realism or stylization is appropriate for the intent. The production
must fit into a specific stage house or multiple venues, adapting the concept to logistical requirements. Theatrical performance traditionally confines the audience to a fixed point of
view, changing the scenery on the stage to change locations,
requiring careful design for transitions. And increasingly, the
design team must also gauge the role of existing or emerging
technologies in theatrical performance.
For storytellers, the first set of choices revolves around a
large question-how will the audience gather information? Is
the story told primarily through verbal or visual communication, or some blend of the two? What is the intention of the
story, and how does that inform the visual environment or the
poetic space?
Many traditional dramatic scripts are largely verbal story
forms, as audiences gather most information from dialogue
with ample time to compare and contrast statements, factoring in physical clues such as facial or body expressions. In
traditional presentation the visual environment recedes-once
established-to focus the audience's attention on the performers. What constitutes a "receding" environment requires judgment on the part of the storytellers. Some storytellers utilize
realism as the receding environment to provide clarity in immediate recognition. Other storytellers use minimalism or
metaphor style to create abstract environments. In this case,
the human eye will be drawn to the most real item in its field of
vision, automatically focusing on live performers. The resulting
dichotomy is a road all designers must negotiate successfully-
producers or directors who prefer the comfort of realism find
minimalism too presentational for their taste; while those who
prefer metaphor find their story weighed down by actors negotiating stages loaded with furnishings, set dressing and props.
One director, explaining his weariness with fourth-wall realism
said "It reduces my job to 100 ways to get an actor through a
door and around a sofa while holding a tea cup."
One example of this type of design decision is a production of Twelve Angry Men, recently presented by the Repertory
Theater of St. Louis. (See fig. 1.) The story explores human

S P R I N G

2008

theatre

design

&

technology

27



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 8
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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