Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 36

designing spectacle-the WoW factor
In spectacle, the story intention-emotional impact-informs
the degree of stylization. Bob Vukasovich notes themed entertainment visual styles are "fantastical" referencing real styles,
but exaggerated for excitement, intrigue, romance or danger.
"The joy and excitement comes from the blatant non-realness
you interact with." Jay Rasulo, the chairman of Walt Disney
Parks and Resorts, is specific about Disney's intent "You want
people leaving thinking 'Wow, only Disney could do that' (Morgenson 2008, 8)."
One excellent example of "Wow" is the Lake of Dreams,
a free show designed to draw tourists into the Wynn Las Vegas.
(See figs. 10a and b.) Nested between a tree-covered hill and
the Parasol Bar, this outdoor space appears to be a waterfall
plunging into a peaceful lake. But every thirty minutes, the
lights change signaling the beginning of a spectacular multimedia show. Each show lasts about three minutes, and then the
lake returns to normal. Designed by the New York-based entertainment and design firm Imaginary Forces, the firm's founder
and director Karin Fong says, "Steve [Wynn] wanted to create
a captivating pause to amuse the guests during dinner. The idea
was to turn those brief amusements into a new art form-sort
of an environmental dinner theater (Gutoff 2008)."
This brief amusement required an army of creative designers, animators, and technical consultants as diverse as creative
director Kenny Ortega, Rolling Stones lighting designer Patrick
Woodroffe, puppet artist Michael Curry, and the technical problem solvers Production Resource Group. The waterfall and lake
transform into a video screen, and a huge head-shaped screen
rises from the lake. Elements include a waterfall/ video screen
90 feet wide, a 27-foot circular screen that rises behind it, a
pair of 25-foot robotic arms that control puppets and props
specific to each show, a 24-foot-high 3D human head screen,
and over 4000 lights choreographed above, below, and around
the water (Gutoff 2008).
A cycle of different shows during the evening creates novelty, and promotes repeat customers who come back to see
what's new. Dozens of videos are available on YouTube documenting not only the shows themselves, but the astonished
audience reactions. (I recommend "Las Vegas Wynn Hotel"
posted by "izzysquishabee.")
short stories
Traditionally, the typical theme park ride or attraction is short,
less than thirty minutes. Even though the rhythm and pace are
fast, the patrons most likely stood in long lines first. Themed
attraction producers are currently wrestling with the digital
generation's expectations; younger audiences, used to a multilevel experience, are no longer interested in the role of passive
viewer being fed a controlled storyline.
In a recent analysis for the New York Times, Sunday
Business section, Gretchen Morgenson explored Disney's
strategies in developing its upcoming attraction, Toy Story
Mania! "Consumer fixation on instant gratification and per-

sonalization has been reshaping the entertainment industry
for some time, but it has finally caught up to the theme park
business (Morgenson 2008)." To attract the younger, digital generation who no longer care to be passive viewers, a
$1 million dollar animatronic Mr. Potato Head will interact
directly with riders, making them feel as if they were inside
a video game.
Universal Studios Hollywood is also addressing interactive
experience with a new Fear Factor Live attraction based on the
television show of extreme physical challenges. Contestants will
be "cast" from park visitors re-creating some of the original
show's voyeuristic aspect: watching ordinary people do awful
or seemingly dangerous stunts.

parameters for immersive design
The designers I spoke with emphasized the importance of
technical specifications for a design. Building materials must
meet safety and fire codes. Materials and supplies must be
available for purchase in huge lots to make dozens or hundreds
of duplications. Fabrics must be tested for continuous wear, exposure to chlorine water or salt water or other special effects.
"Weather is a major concern." Kristina Tollefson explained.
"Rain is an everyday occurrence here [Walt Disney World Resort
in Florida] not to mention the humidity so feathers and lightweight fabrics are a concern. Even if it isn't raining at the time,
the ground is often wet so footwear and length of dresses have
to be carefully considered. Universal [Studios Orlando] has
costumes for a Mardi Gras Parade that they prefer to have feathers on, but if it is raining they have something else...that can
go out in the rain. The other big factor is fabric reaction and
durability to UV. They have a whole department at Disney that
does buying and testing of fabrics for launderability, durability,
and reaction to UV."
Designs must be analyzed for labor intensive details that
when applied to many duplicates may add up to a forbidding
expenditure. "Sheer volume is a challenge for entertainment
costuming because everyone you encounter is technically costumed," says Tollefson. "At Walt Disney World that means maintaining a costume inventory for over 40,000 people-many of
whom portray multiple characters."
Themed attraction performers can come in many species, as well. "Sea World and Busch Gardens have an additional
layer to much of their costuming," Tollefson observed. "And
the animals have the final say. The health and well-being of the
performer/trainer and animal has to be the first consideration.
It is not an option for a sequin to fall off in the water with the
dolphins, for example. So the animal trainers are very involved
in the design process and maintenance on these costumes is
carefully monitored. If the animals don't react favorably to a
costume, they have veto power."
In spite of technical or construction differences, the lighting design goals for theater and themed entertainment are identical, says Tom Ruzika. "The first goal is to feature the human
being. In theater this is generally the performer, to make them

S P R I N G

2008

theatre

design

&

technology

35



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Spring 2008 - 6
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