Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 10

the

subtext
HEAD SHOT
Those dead guys had it right. They knew about people. The
Greeks, Shakespeare, Molière, Shaw, all of them understood
human behavior. And we know now that what they showed us
is true because neuroscience is validating what they knew instinctively.

...evolutionary explanations are logical. Jealousy is
needed to insure that our genes are passed on.
Let's take jealousy. Medea didn't suffer in silence. She offed
her rival for Jason's affection with a poisoned robe and even
caught papa with the same magic juice. Of course this happens
off stage because it's a stretch to design a costume that burns up
the actor. And what do they do about a curtain call?
And then there is Leontes in The Winter's Tale. He suspects his wife Hermione is pregnant by his friend Polixenes so
he ships her off to prison where she promptly gives birth to a
baby girl and supposedly dies. Don't worry, sixteen years later
she appears alive, reunited with her remorseful husband.
Othello is another example of jealousy gone wrong. But
he is goaded into it by Iago while Medea is truly wronged and
Leontes is able to get screwed up all by himself. We are now
told that there is a difference between the reasons why men and
women become jealous. Men suffer because of a loss of physical
connection while women suffer from the loss of an emotional
connection. In other words, women can silently fancy another
man from afar but must be physically faithful and men can play
around a bit but must still love their partner.
In Murderous Jealousy - it's in our genes, Dr. David M.
Buss tells how the brain processes jealous thoughts: "By scanning the brains of volunteers who are instructed to imagine
their lovers having sex with other people, neuroscientists have
found that jealous emotions excite the amygdala and hypothalamus, brain structures linked with both sexual and aggressive
behavior. Jealousy also stimulates the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which activates when an individual tries to discern
the intentions of others or perceives that social norms are being violated. Even merely imagining our partner in the arms of
a rival causes substantial physiological distress-a heart that
races, electrodermal activity skyrocketing with a profusion of
sweat and muscular tension."
Dr. Buss goes on to say a majority of people interviewed
had fantasies of killing rivals, often in "painful and gruesome
ways."
Speaking of killing rivals, years ago, I put a distinguished
visiting designer on a plane that went to Los Angeles and connected to a flight to New York. The L.A. to New York flight was
canceled so he did not arrive in New York as expected. The New

by Beeb Salzer
York police were called, they called the San Diego police, who
then called me, the likely suspect. The problem was quickly
resolved when he showed up. But I could see the headlines,
"Competitor Kills Famous Designer." (My fantasy included being called a competitor.) (Designer killing designer would be
a good plot; a sort of Mozart/Salieri rivalry except using an Exacto knife instead of poison.)
Theatre people are for the most part not jealous. But we
are envious and the sources of envy, gloating, and schadenfreude are related and have been located in the brain by Shamy-Tsoory, Tibi-Elhanany, and Aharon-Peretz. (I didn't make
up these names.) They identified these areas by studying people
who did not have these emotions because of lesions on parts
of their brains.
Jealousy comes from losing something. Envy is wanting something that someone else has. And gloating and
schadenfreude are having something others don't or
watching them lose what they had. All of these are imprinted
on our brains and not learned. The evolutionary explanations
are logical. Jealousy is needed to insure that our genes are
passed on. Envy comes from wanting to have more of things
such as nuts and berries for the winter while today it means
keeping up with the neighbors.
Neuroscience is finding places in the brain where all of
the emotions we use in theatre are located. Anger is a common dramatic device that is shown to draw attention away from
anything else going on. If we hear two voices, one calm and one
angry, we pay attention to the angry one. If you want to be heard
in a production meeting, get angry but don't count on winning
many friends. Since anger is often a destructive emotion, anger
management training is common today.
Neuroscientists report that there are mirroring neurons,
the source of both empathy and conformity. Groups tend to
dress alike, speak alike, and behave alike. I think of those rallies in Nazi Germany where thousand of hands go up in a salute
to Hitler. But in a more benign situation, we try to meld an audience into reacting as a group.
To me, one of the most interesting discoveries is that our
brains can change from hating new art to loving it. Whether it
was Van Gogh or Stravinsky, time was needed to allow us to understand the beauty of what was once denounced. It seems that
when our brains make new neuronal connections and discover
the patterns of new art, we understand its value and are able to
appreciate it.
Scientists explain emotions with probes and imaging. In
theatre we elicit emotions with words, actions, forms, and colors. Imagine what we could find out about reactions if everyone
at a play had his head in an MRI scanner. ❖

W I N T E R

2008

THEATRE

DESIGN

&

TECHNOLOGY

9



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - Contents
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