Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 22

Emotional appeal is a broad category-rousing story emotion
in the viewer such as anger or anxiety, persuading the viewer
to admire a particular character or actor, or even making audience members
feel good about themselves.

of longer legs. For the Die Hards and Hudson Hawk we made
every ounce of the clothing he wore because we needed to get
his silhouette right" (Seger 1994, 207, 211).
Creating the correct ambience is another aspect of audience psychology. Tom Ruzika explains one of his design choices
for the recent expansion of the Seminole Hard Rock Casino in
Tampa. "The original casino lighting design was cold and modern, but for the expansion I pushed for warmer lighting. People
look and feel better, and the public loves the new expansion."
Casinos certainly understand that happy people stay in a space
longer, spending more money. Other themed entertainments
evoke raw thrills in attractions such as Universal Studios' Terminator 2: 3D. Viewing the promotional video at Universal Studios.com, one witnesses the attraction's appeal to raw audience
emotion. But not all emotions must be so large; live theater
masterfully evokes more nuanced responses such as creeping
realizations or existential unease.
The last designer's eye used for visual storytelling is INTERACTION. While the term is currently applied to online venues or game design, it has always been a strong part of story
mechanics, supplying rhythm and focus at any given moment.
In all media, story elements can function two ways-as supporting materials or charged with significance. The most obvious example is classical opera construction in which words
(recitative) and music (arias) combine to tell the story. Recitative conveys verbal plot information; during these times musical
elements retreat to a repetitive accompaniment mimicking conversation. Arias convey pure emotion; during these moments
the other story elements pause to create focus on the message
in the music. Just as with musical composition, visual storytelling requires directing attention to the appropriate focal point at
any given time.
Design aspects recede or advance to create a rhythm. This
give-and-take can be divided into design elements and design
events. Design elements function as background, subtly providing information to support the performers or focal points.
Designers themselves often refer to "appropriate" rather than
aggressive design for this category, and it is much of what we
do. However, design also rises to the task of creating events or
sharp focus: an important entrance, spectacular scenic transitions, a grand finale, "buttons" or emphasis in musical num-

bers, innumerable special effects, or other obvious changes in
the visual arrangement. One example of this rhythm is evident
in the film Barton Fink. Barton, whose wiry, abstracted hair
stands on end as a clue to his tightly-wound character, checks
into a Hollywood hotel to write studio screenplays. The hotel
is a physical manifestation of Barton's deteriorating frame of
mind providing a disturbing atmosphere for the actor's performance. Yet there are times the hotel itself becomes an active
character with the camera focusing on peeling wallpaper, distorted hallways, and eventually blazing torment.
This rhythm of interaction applies to all storytelling media. Joel Goodsell explains the relationship in video games:
"Physical action and verbal story communication are usually
separated. A player in the midst of the game's action is concentrating on executing those actions. We search for the quiet
moments to communicate story. Much of our story communication is non-verbal-a scary shadow moving across the wall
foreshadows a future encounter. However, there are limits [to
non-verbal communication]," he said. "One can generally get
the relationships and the flow of the plot in a silent film without
reading the words, but the details are lost. The same is true
in games-deeper interaction requires language-based communication."
While these are examples of visual and verbal information
taking turns, sometimes focus shifts from one design aspect to
another to create rhythm or emphasis. "Once established, sets
and costumes can be relatively static or fixed elements until a
major shift in the story," sound designer Vincent Olivieri once
told me. "Lights and sound, however, are more fluid elements
that can change from moment to moment, providing a running dialogue with the viewer." For instance, a sound and light
change could transform a calm mountain cabin into a den for
dark acts. Both lights and sound also communicate the passage of time. One technique employed in casinos, Tom Ruzika
points out, is a sky mural lit to transform from sunrise to daylight to sunset many times, creating a compressed timeline for
gamblers spending long hours indoors.
Rapid changes in a design element can create excitement,
such as sequences with moving light or video displays during a
rock concert, and unbelievable design feats create spectacles.
Kristina Tollefson notes that one live show performed on a Dis-

W I N T E R

2008

THEATRE

DESIGN

&

TECHNOLOGY

21


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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 9
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