Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 43

quotes Picasso: "Men had made those masks and other objects
for a sacred purpose, a magic purpose, as a kind of mediation
between themselves and the unknown hostile forces that surrounded them, in order to overcome their fear and horror by
giving them form and an image. At that moment I realized that
this was what painting was all about. Painting is not an aesthetic
operation: it is a form of magic designed as a mediator between
this strange, hostile world and us, a way of seizing the power by
giving form to our terrors as well as our desires. When I came
to that realization, I knew I had found my way" (Bihalji-Merin
1970, 179).
Later Bihalji-Merin refers to the "central regions important in the world of masks; those of the West African cultural
groupings, from Ghana to Angola"
and to "African masked dancers
who take part in funeral, fertility
Just as Western
and initiation festivities, representing punitive and regulating powers."
culture has
Traditional African conceptualizabeen influenced
tions used in creating masks for Afby African
rican performance have influenced
numerous other twentieth-century
art, African
Western artists such as Modigliani,
communities
Paul Klee, Eduardo Paolozzi, and
Henry Moore (Bihalji-Merin 1970,
have been
44-5). Plays currently produced
influenced by the
in the United States such as August
West in terms of
Wilson's Gem of the Ocean and Julie Taymor's Lion King incorporate
education and
significant aspects of African masked
Western myths.
performance.
But just as Western culture
has been influenced by African art,
African communities have been influenced by the West in terms of
education and Western (as well as
Islamic) myths. Today, Nigerian citizens encounter Western aesthetic and value systems more often than they did one hundred
years ago. How does this situation influence their traditional
masked performance festivals? Ultimately, what challenges do
mask makers confront in the midst of such dramatic cultural
change and what insights into traditional African mask making can contemporary Nigerian mask makers teach us?
I first decided to visit and interview mask makers in
Nigeria after seeing Ojetunji Ojeyemi's magnificent Egungun masquerade at the 2005 International Mask Conference at the University of Southern Illinois, Carbondale.
My review of that event, published in the spring 2006 issue of TD&T, described him as a Nigerian performer who
"held the audience spellbound with the rhythmic drumming, music, and masked dance of a typical Yoruba ancestral (Egungun) masquerade. Ojetunji (or Tunji as he calls
himself) paraded onto the university's stage to prophesy,
pontificate, admonish, and inspire the surrounding village

42

THEATRE

DESIGN

&

TECHNOLOGY

W I N T E R

2008

people. Some were members of the audience who came
on stage to participate" (Bell 2006, 42-3). Apart from his
extensive experience as a masked performer, Tunji also designs and makes masks, though he focuses primarily on
performance. He is a professor at Obafemi Awolowo University, where he teaches performance techniques, dance,
and choreography. He is also artistic director of a professional dance troupe, located in the city of Ile-Ife, the cradle
of Yoruba culture.

Masquerade in Nigeria
Westerners tend to think of masquerade as a rather shallow
event, usually involving stately moving celebrities on parade
floats; or blandly waving cartoon characters at Disney World.
Conversely, the Egungun masquerade, like the one Tunji presented in Illinois, involves serious spiritual emphasis on the
realm of the dead. Unlike Western presentational forms of
staged expression, some African rituals (while not as predominant as originally assumed) require the mask to take on
the spirit/character that it evokes during the performance rite
(Pernet 1992, 117-35). At this point, the mask becomes "alive"
not symbolically, but literally. The Egungun masks conjure ancestral spirits and Egungun performers talk about the spirit of
the dead literally inhabiting their bodies when masked. While
Egunguns are rarely sinister, they carry such profound secrets
that audience members maintain respectful distances. Traditionally, women are forbidden to either create or touch such
forms, either in the act of making the mask or in performance,
although some women, if they belong to the appropriate cult,
can attend ceremonial performances.
Tunji and several other Nigerians I interviewed insisted
that this concept does not denigrate women. After all, Yoruba
women have their own masked spectacle in the form of the
Gèlèdé masquerades, which acknowledge their own impressive powers. (Albeit the masquerades are performed by male
masqueraders.) The Yoruba communities consider women
essentially separate but equal in terms of their own capabilities (Ojeyemi/ Ogunneyemi, 2006). Pernet in his book Ritual
Masks describes the Gèlèdé Festival as "honoring [Yoruba]
mothers. It publicly recognizes the power of women (old
women, ancestresses, or deified women), not only their creative power but also their secret and destructive power which
expresses itself in witchcraft. The participants aim then at conciliation between [Yoruba] mothers and the witches (àjé) so
that they will use their powers for good rather than the destruction of the community" (Pernet 1992 Dead, 64). Beckwith and
Fisher describe this ritual more specifically as one where "the
objective is to identify and eliminate the negative aspects of female power and replace them with the more benevolent themes
of fecundity, maternity, and well-being" (Beckwith 1999, 119).
Furthermore, the annual Osun Festival in Osogbo celebrates the feminine, fertile, and creative powers of Osun, an
important Yoruba òrìsà. The term, òrìsà, helps to explain the
essential purpose and functions of Yoruba masks. Occasion-



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 8
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