Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 53

Celebrants at the Osun Festival rituals on the
banks of the river.

god without shedding blood [that is, one cannot experience the
concept of eternal divinity without the experience of loss and
death], so during the annual purification process, the masks
are also cleansed with the blood of animal sacrifices," Adigun
added. "These masks are so sacred, only an intimate circle of
priests ever sees them" (Ajani 4 August 2006).
Adigun introduced me to an Osun priestess, Oyabo Osun
Yemi, who annually helps to prepare the Osun shrines for the
Festival. She acknowledged that only priests can cleanse the
otonporo masks. "I don't mind that I'm not allowed to see the
masks," she said. "Women must not see God. I have natural,
intuitive feelings toward my obligations as a priestess of Osun,
and that is sufficient for me. Osun reveals herself to me when I
divine truths as I carry out my rituals" (Yemi 2006).
On the final day of the Osun Festival a virgin carries the
otonporo masks to the river bank inside a covered calabash to
protect Osun and her creative spirit. The covered calabash of
sacred unseen masks rests on the river bank during the culmination of the Festival while a variety of non-sacred, commerciallybased masqueraders celebrate the benefits of Osun's constant
restorative powers in a more raucous, carnivalesque way.
Adigun explained that Osun's feminine powers are universal and magnificent. "Osun is always accompanied by water,
and water can overcome fire. The fiery, angry spirits are subdued by Osun. She is sensitive and is always ready to marry
any other òrìsà. She has many husbands, including potentially
threatening òrìsàs such as Sango (thunder and lighting), Obatala (intelligence and destiny), and Ogun (iron and war). This
explains why many other òrìsà carvings surround her in her
grove and why she often serves to balance the other òrìsàs'
deep-seated urges to control. Consequently anyone wishing to
understand Yoruba myth and masks should come to the Osun
grove first" (Ajani 4 August 2006).
Contemporary Yoruba theatrical ritual celebrations involving the ancestors, women, commerce, or rebirth continue
not only in Nigeria, but also in areas of Brazil, Cuba, and Haiti
where Yoruba slaves were brought in earlier centuries. Even
after an extensive passage of time, the masks and celebrations
beyond Nigeria uncannily resemble those of the motherland.
And Yoruba mask makers in Osogbo and Ile-Ife, Nigeria (at
least a select minority) still beckon and cajole the Egungun,
Gèlèdé, Epa, Osun, and other òrìsà spirits to life. Only Olodumare knows how long future mask makers will continue in the
Yoruba tradition when confronted by so many contemporary
daily distractions from abroad as well as from within. ❖
Deborah Bell is professor of costume design at
University of North Carolina at Greensboro. Last year she
visited several mask makers at the Samba Schools in Rio
de Janeiro as well as mask makers in Malawi and Nigeria
with support from a 2006 USITT grant. Her previous TD&T
article, "The Mask Maker's Magic," received the 2006
Herbert D. Greggs Award for excellence in writing.

52

THEATRE

DESIGN

&

TECHNOLOGY

W I N T E R

2008



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 9
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 12
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2008 - 28
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com