Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 50

to measure proportions, depth, and spacings. Standard body
measurements can also be attached to the costume technical
sheet for ease of pattern drafting.
Our system is simple enough for the layperson with no
training in computer graphics to use and does not require any
particular artistic ability. We begin with a digital photograph of
an actor. Adobe Photoshop is then used to translate that image
into a digital line drawing. The illustration is a perfectly proportional image of that specific actor, accurate in scale and detail.
The line drawing of the actor is transferred onto a grid template
so that the illustration is on a clearly defined measurement
scale. This is the key in making costume details specific enough
to measure directly from the drawing, as one would with any
technical drawing. We then use this scaled actor outline as a
template on which to draw costume details, either manually
or digitally. Fabric swatches and colors complete the Costume
Technical Sheet, which is used as a reference throuought
costume construction.

z Problems with Some Costume
Renderings
In a university setting, students need a practical method of
conveying costume construction details. I teach two costuming
courses at McGill University and have developed a team approach to design that allows all of my students to participate in
designing costumes for our productions. Over the years, I have
worked out a way for each student to be part of a production's
design process by designing one costume from head to toe. The
success of this approach requires carefully developing a color
palette and clearly communicating overall design concepts.
When students follow these guidelines, all the costumes fit together as a cohesive costume design. Surprisingly, the problems
I have had with the team-design process were not in communication and coordination but in the execution of individual
sketches. Some students could draw beautifully, while others
were at the "stick man" phase of illustration. I assured my students that good ideas can be expressed in very modest drawings
and that our judgements about their work were based on the
merits of the design and not solely on the students' artistic talent. This worked fairly well within the context of our class, but
occasionally, when a director was added to the mix the costume
designs favored by the director tended to be the drawings that
were beautifully illustrated, regardless of merit and feasibility. A
recent example is illustrative: one of the most talented artists in
the class created a costume for Kate in the crucial final scene of
Taming of the Shrew. The design consisted of what appeared
to be two tea towels attached together on each shoulder with a
button. It was by far the most beautiful sketch, but it depicted a
problematic garment from a technical standpoint. The director
chose that sketch. This solidified my desire to add an element
that encouraged looking critically at the design from a garment
construction point of view.
As designers, we may have a tendency to exaggerate proportions, often making actors look taller and thinner, which has

48

theatre

design

&

technology

S U M M E R

the effect of making the costume look more graceful. There
is also the tendency to fill up the page with our renderings.
This can give the impression that all of the actors are of similar
height. When the director sees somewhat idealized illustrations,
the expectation is set that the finished costume will replicate
the effect. We set ourselves an impossible task by exaggerating
proportions to make the sketches look alluring. This problem
is alleviated when using the Costume Technical Sheet because
garments are drawn directly on a scaled version of the each
actor's individual body. The illustration should look exactly as
it will once it is cut and sewn. by using the actual actor's proportions, we allow ourselves to design something that will be
most flattering for the real person who is wearing the garment,
rather than a garment for an idealized model.

z Creating the Costume Technical
Sheet
We have produced guides that take the designer through each
phase of creating the Costume Technical Sheet, from photographing the actor, to creating the digital line drawing, to transferring the actor outline onto a grid template. The instructions
are written in clear language, with the novice in mind. There
is no assumption of prior training in computer graphics or illustration. We use the Adobe Photoshop graphics program, since
the program is widely available in school computer labs and it
has a three month free trial period from the Adobe Web site.
Educational institutions generally offer a substantial rebate on the
cost of the software, which makes it relatively affordable.
Translating a digital photograph into a digital
line-drawing: The process of transforming a color photograph of an actor into a line-drawing is a relatively simple
one. The quality of line-drawing that can be produced in Photoshop depends on the quality of the original photograph of
the actor, so we have developed a guideline for taking digital
photographs that translate easily into crisp outlines. The actor needs to be dressed in dark, body-hugging clothing. The
ideal background is a white seamless backdrop; this can be
something as simple as white paper or fabric hung behind the
actor, extending past his/her feet. The key to a good transformation is maximum contrast between actor and background.
Flash is recommended in addition to ample lighting, including
side lighting if possible. The extra lighting helps to bring out the
details in the face, and it has a big impact on the final image.
When taking the photos of the actor, we include a front,
side view, back view, and close-up of the face. Having different
views of the actor allows us to create templates for back and
side views of the costume. Often these views are not included in
costume illustrations, which can be a missed creative opportunity. Costume illustrations almost always privilege frontal views,
but on stage the actor is viewed from all angles. Neglecting to
design the costume from all angles is like throwing away a substantial part of the potential that the garment can offer. back
views can be seductive, intriguing, assertive. Side views can be
incredibly sculptural and evocative, particularly when viewed in

2009



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 31
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 39
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 43
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Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 50
Theatre Design & Technology - Summer 2009 - 51
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