Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 34

Throughout this article, I will focus on the elements of
performing arts venues that contribute to the creation of lighting design and the training young designers. Venues intended
for use by working professionals or located within institutions
that can make pedagogical investments without regard for revenue generation can overcome the problem I outline. It is the
venues that provide the initial exposure to the art of lighting for
audiences and practitioners that I address. These venues exist
in the reality of tight budget caps, limited planning resources,
and survival in the face of adversity. It is my perception that for
every one venue for the pros there are dozens for the rest of us.
The sheer numbers of school, community, and houses of worship that offer initial experiences with light require us to create
better opportunities for learning about light.

some history
Prior to the spread of Stanley McCandless' ideas in the 1960s,
most production lighting was a craftsman's project. McCandless
began to systematically consider the distribution or angle from
which the light was projected as a design element. The idea
of lighting from multiple directions, each serving the production within a unified design was novel and changed both the
production staging and the architectural design of new spaces.
McCandless coupled the idea of distribution with the related
quality of color to develop a stylistic system for supporting the
actors' work.
As the idea of motivated and designed light became more
complicated through the 1970s, theatre managers began making accommodation for lighting from more directions. PostWWII America witnessed a democratization of the audience and
the use of boxes for seating declined. Lighting designers eagerly
took these, began adding front-of-house pipes, bolting booms
onto aprons and behind prosceniums, and pressing for the creation of new slots, booms, bumps, and splays. By the end of the
decade many theatres had lighting from a wide variety of locations, rapidly expanding the concept of designed distribution of
lighting far beyond the scope of McCandless' system.
Equipment manufacturers developed the circuit patch
panel to resolve the need for a wide array of locations with the
still limited number of dimmers typical at that time. A theatre
could boast two or three hundred hang locations with circuits
that could patch down to the thirty or forty dimmers available,
some with capacities as high as 12,000W. So, each theatre could
be adapted to provide angle solutions for lighting that met the
very specific and divergent needs of the various performing arts
by the relatively simple matter of rehanging fixtures and adapting the hard patch in the lighting patch bay. The idea of specials
developed as several limited-use fixtures could inhabit a single
dimmer and be switched on and off as needed by their branch
breakers. I have routinely included over one hundred design
elements within a production that included sixty or fewer dimmers this way. Patch bays and the concept of episodic play
structure are stylistic partners.

32

theatre

design

&

technology

W I N T E R

2009

The key point is this: though the development of dimming
lagged, between 1950 and 1975, the architectural design and
renovation of theatres advanced conceptually to allow lighting to move from a craft of convenience to an art of specific
response. The patch panel made this advance possible by its
inherent flexibility and easy adaptation. The emergence of
angle as a powerful emotional and intellectual design element
allowed lighting to reach the visionary horizon first laid claim
to in the early part of the last century by Apia and Craig and
written about so eloquently by Jean Rosenthal.
In the late 1970s the first generation of high-density rackmounted dimming came on the market. Eventually, the ninetysix dimmer rack with 2.4kW units became the standard format
for dimming as we know it today. Through a protracted product
development process, the evolution of the DMX-512 standard,
and concessions from the theatrical unions, we ushered in the
modern era of computerized lighting. Typically, each dimmer is
hardwired to a specific circuit and each circuit has a dedicated
2400W dimmer-one dimmer per each circuit (DPC). The
general adoption of DPC equaled the death of the patch panel-circuits were each hardwired to their assigned dimmer.
Though the patch panel had significant flaws, it also allowed
a generation of young designers to understand and manipulate
angle in meaningful and delightful ways.
The lighting of the late '60s through the mid-'80s was informed by a growing variety of angles that supported a diverse
range of color and conceptual lighting ideas. Today's popular
performance lighting is informed by limited angles. If you visit low to moderate priced new venues, you will find lighting
angles that replicate (at best) Stanley McCandless' 1960s-era
system and (at worst) a 1840s gas-lighted auditorium. Not
only does this limit the production support available for productions but, worse in my mind, it limits the training of young
designers. The vast majority of new spaces are designed to limit
angle choices. This limiting of angle choices is a direct result
of the shift to DPC. A patch panel provided the means to have
the cheap circuits far outnumber the expensive dimmers. We
traded the most expensive component-the patch bay-for a
radical increase in the number of dimmers. By matching dimmers to circuits, we made angle choice a direct consequence
of budget size. You can only have the variety of angles that your
hardware budget allows just as you can only have the quality of
direct sound that your facility propagates.

A flawed process
Here is how most projects get built today. Someone initiates a
project and asks the question "How much will it cost?" A good
facility manager can figure out what you are going to do with
the space and how big the various areas in the building need to
be. This allows you to figure out some rough square footages.
You multiply the square feet by generic cost estimates supplied
by your general contractor to get the building costs. Finally, you
develop a budget for equipment-at the end of the process. On



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 21
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 22
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 23
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 31
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 32
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 33
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 34
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 35
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 36
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 37
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 38
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 39
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 40
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 41
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 42
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 43
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 44
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 50
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 51
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 52
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 53
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 54
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 55
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 56
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 57
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 58
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 59
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 60
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 61
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 62
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 63
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 64
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 65
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 66
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 67
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 68
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 69
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 70
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 71
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 72
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 73
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 74
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 75
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 76
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2021winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2021winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2020winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2019
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2019winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2018winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017fall_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/usitt_techexpoguide_2017
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2017winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016spring_public
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2016winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2015winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2014summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2013spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2012spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2011spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2010spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2009spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2008spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2007spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2006spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2005spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2004spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2003spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2002spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2001spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_2000spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1999spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1998spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1997spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1996spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1995spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1994spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1993spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1992spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1991spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1990spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1989spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1988spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1987spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1986spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1985spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1984spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1983spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1982spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1981spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1980spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
https://www.nxtbookmedia.com