Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 52

important as the body-artistic gestures." The concentration
in sets and lighting is on providing framework and focus for
the performer in a manner that is simple, clean, abstract, and
strongly metaphoric. Wu eschews realism in any aspect of the
performance.
In Waiting for Godot, which premiered at Taipei's thousand-seat Metropolitan Hall in 2005, Wu made his first attempt
to bring the techniques of Peking Opera to a modern classic. He
had sought to do the play in 1997 but failed to find a venue or
funding. Eight years later, on a Chan (Zen) retreat, he had what
he describes as an epiphany: rather than the company's originally announced production, he would stage Godot. "Godot, I
realized, knew all along when he would come, whether the general environment for artistic creation had improved or not."
While in other productions Wu had been able to adapt
freely from the source, the restrictions imposed by the Beckett
estate necessitated careful adherence to the text of Waiting for
Godot. With the assistance of Stan Lai, translator of the only
authorized Chinese edition of the play, Wu was able to overcome some of the copyright challenges, among them the estate's injunction against the use of music, seemingly inimical
to a production using Chinese opera techniques. Wu's version of
the play uses music sparingly and poignantly. Each act begins and
ends with a plaintive melody from the qin, an ancient Chinese
stringed instrument. Considered the instrument of scholars,
the qin is also strongly associated with Chan, which provided
inspiration for Wu's vision of Beckett's world. The performance
is carefully structured in rhythm and tempo, and in moments of
metaphysical contemplation or high emotion, the actors sing the
text, unaccompanied, to tunes based on old Chinese opera forms.
Moved by Beckett's perception of the universal human experience, Wu wondered how to find Eastern equivalents for the
Western dilemmas in which the playwright's vision is couched.
"Christian vocabulary appears in the play-the Gospels, penitence, punishment, salvation...what concepts in Eastern faith
are analogous to these? How do we treat the notion that 'God is
dead,' turning it into a critique of the Buddhist teaching that one
can immediately become a Buddha? Beckett's waiting for Godot
is the eternal waiting in the West, a nightmare from which one
can never be free. Is it possible to render this waiting as a Chan
realization of emptiness?"
Wu turned to lighting and scenic designer Lin Ke-Hua
and costume designer Hwang Wen-Ying for visual metaphors
to provide a bridge between text and audience. Lin, who took
his MFA at Yale, has been principal designer for the Cloud Gate
Dance Theatre since 1981. A theatre consultant whose firm has
collaborated on numerous cultural facilities, he also founded
the first theatre technology training program in Taiwan. Hwang,
who studied at Pittsburgh and took her MFA from Carnegie Mellon, is both a well-known costume designer and an award-winning art director, frequently collaborating with Taiwanese film
director Hou Hsiao-Hsien.
Lin sought "extreme simplicity" in his design. Inspired by
modern Chinese ink painting, in which the artists "use only big

50

theatre

design

&

technology

W I N T E R

2009

splashes of ink to present feelings of vastness and force as well
as human beings positioned in the interactions between the
secular and spiritual worlds," he used "a minimal amount of
realism and leaned toward presenting the Chinese idea of the
'void.'" He paid tribute also to the minimal scenery of traditional Chinese theatre, which he calls "a performer's theatre."
Finally, he notes that since "Beckett's plays emphasize linguistic
exchange, not visual effect," adding anything visual to Beckett's
scenic specifications would have been meaningless.
Lin surrounded a rectangular platform with three black
scrim walls enclosed in three more scrim walls. Most of the
time, these walls disappear in the void. We are aware of them
only during entrances and exits and in Act II when Estragon,
deciding to leave, runs around between the sets of walls, only
to reemerge on the other side of the platform because "they're
coming." When Vladimir suggests that "they" may be Godot,
Estragon reverses the action, reemerging to report "They're
coming there too." Lin explains that he "designed the stage to
be a pure space, which looked enclosed, restricted, yet quite
open." Though the actors would seem to be able to get in and
out of this space freely, they would be restrained by having no
other place to which they might escape.
Beckett specifies a tree and a low mound. Lin covered
the platform with reflective acrylic panels, then hung the tree
upside down and cast its reflection and light on the floor. His
intent was to depict the "interactions between a real object and
its shadow, creating the illusion of a mirage." For Wu HsingKuo, this stage, with the shadow of the tree on it, presented
"the double world of illusion and reality." Lin's tree, a silver
metal sculpture, has thin twisted "branches" bending upward,
covered in a few spots by gray crusts resembling welding slag.
In Act II, it acquires a handful of long, pointed green leaves.
The mound, a gray and white oblong up left, becomes a barren white quartz-like outcropping under the lights (figure 4).
Where Beckett calls for moonrise, a large yellow crescent appears behind the mound.
Pristine and seemingly simple, Lin's lighting of the space
reflects his dance experience, employing avenues of side
light, high back light that gives definition to the performers,
and down light that paints the platform. He intersects circuits
of deeply saturated blue with lighter blue, lavender, and clear.
Shadows, when noticeable, come from back light and gave the
clean effect of a single source. At the opening of each act, to the
haunting melody of the qin, a blue light from a narrow opening in the upstage scrim pierces the blackness, giving partial
silhouette to two figures who stagger slowly downstage, shoulder to shoulder (figure 6). The addition of rich blue on the
platform and avenues of icy sidelight reveals the ancient tattered figures of Estragon and Vladimir. For a moment, as the
tree appears, seeming to cast a tiny circle of light on the deck
below, the tramps disappear again, and we see only their long
still shadows running toward us in a blue rectangle of light.
Then they resume their downstage progress and the cold blue
twilight is restored as the play's action begins. With the arrival



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2009 - 13
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