Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010 - 39

Architecture
The Sydney Opera House, a center
line section through Minor Hall.
This theatre was singled out as an
example of "Theatre as Sculpture"
in Mr. Mullin's TD&T article
(Dec. 1965).

been "apologies" for theatre's existence. "the most concrete (sometimes
literally) and substantial of these apologia is that of the theater building itself, the only thing that lasts after the show has closed." the article
includes many examples of theatre structures that were massaged into
conformity with ideas that were thought to be respectable and worth preserving at the time instead of letting the buildings take whatever shape
and form was necessary. two common themes in Mullin's seven apologies
is the lack of understanding of the art of theatre and the lack of communication in the design and construction process among the owners,
architects, construction managers, and artists who will inhabit the building. the need for better understanding and communication which Mullin
identified in 1965 remains a valid rationale for usitt's existence today
and into the future.
Mullin followed up this article, "theatre as something else: a History
of apologies," with "real theater Please" (May 1966) in which he offers
some positive approaches to correcting what he earlier called Western
culture's inability to accept theatre for what it is. the following six questions, which he says can indicate the direction to look for answers, have
little to do with the size and shape of the building.
* With the current emphasis upon flexible theater, what is the most
flexible form possible?
* What should be the relationship between the actor and the audience,
relative to their physical environment?
* How are we to preserve theatricality, assuming we know what that is?
* How are we to create a "sense of occasion" and its attendant magic
of the theater?
* What is intimacy and how can it be achieved?
* How do we accommodate scenic as well as non-scenic productions?
Mullin's suggested answers are as instructive today as they were forty-four years ago. He says the most flexible theatre form is a proscenium
stage with a high opening (high enough to "vanish entirely"), a grid to
match, a very large offstage space, complete traps or elevators, and with
an apron that may be extended when needed. He acknowledges that many
budgets won't allow his ideal theatre form and advises smaller theatres to
consider scaled-down versions. the actor-audience relationship, he says,
needs to accommodate several capabilities for each. for actors he insists
that they be seen clearly by the audience, that they be heard (without aids)
and be able to clearly hear the audience, that they not have their performances dictated by the design of the stage, that they be able to withdraw
from all the house at once, and that they be distant enough to "fake business" and wear makeup convincingly. the audience, Mullin says, needs to

have pleasant surroundings and reasonable comfort, needs to share their
responses, needs to have a sense of anticipation and not have the stage
revealed too soon, needs to see actors and actions and hear natural voices
clearly, needs to be close enough to see facial expressions, needs to be
able to feel involved in actions and emotions (but also feel distant enough
to be separate from "distasteful things"), and needs to be part of "a small
group associated with a mass rather than a midge within a mass."
How do we preserve theatricality? Mullin insists that theatres are
unique and should not feel like, or be, art galleries or cocktail lounges.
He answers his question about creating a "sense of occasion" with the
argument that u-shaped theatres with galleried auditoria provide the best
opportunities for audience members to be seen and heard. He says intimacy doesn't equal smallness but rather depends on a sense of genuine
relationship or closeness between the actors and the audience. and finally, he says scenery is entirely a function of the play-"put up scenery
when you want it and don't put it up when you don't want it."
in conclusion, Mullin runs through several contemporary theatres and
architects-the anta theatre (designed by committee), Philip Johnson's
new York state theatre (a frank retrogression), george izenour's theatres
(trying to cover all bets), and the theatres of James Hull Miller (child-like
and fragile)-and concedes that his ideal theatre has yet to be designed.
the first chair of the standing committee on architecture, engineering and construction, Helge Westermann, aia, identified the purpose of
the committee as a place "to provide collective experience and exchange
ideas and authoritative data relating to the workable, effective design,
equipment, and construction of theaters." various sub-committees had
their own missions. the sub-committee on architecture, chaired by eric
Pawley, aia, provided "collective experience and exchange of ideas on effective theater architecture, based upon evaluation of the theater program
as it relates to techniques, materials, and economics"; the sub-committee
on engineering, chaired by Hans sondheimer, aimed "to encourage, develop, and communicate effective techniques for optimum coordination
of all elements and forms of equipment, old and new, necessary for theatrical presentation and theater operation, and to review traditional, contemporary, and legal requirements for theatre construction, and to make
and implement recommendations for the encouragement and facilitation
of theatre construction"; and the sub-committee on construction, chaired
by arthur benline, agreed "to review traditional, contemporary, and legal requirements for theater construction, and to make and implement
recommendations for the encouragement and facilitation of theater
construction."

W I N T E R

2010

theatre

design

&

teChnology

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010

Contents
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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