Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010 - 41

theatre. david thayer at iowa state wrote an
article for the first edition of TD&T titled "Planning for lighting control systems" in which
he recognized the potential for data processing and programming for lighting: "this image of the lighting control system is related to
a continuously-programmed computer" (May
1965). by the late 1960s, computers began to
operate stage lighting in limited applications.
as a berkeley undergraduate, i witnessed a
computer-controlled light cue for the first time
at the san francisco opera House in 1971. in
the 70s, memory lighting boards were refined
and made available on the general market.
When it opened in 1975, a chorus line was the
first broadway show to feature computerized
light control. tharon Musser's design utilized
a prototype edi board that Pearlman based on
a dec PdP-8 computer. You might find it hard
to believe that it had 8K of core memory (raM)
that was upgraded to 16K, but all the details are
reported by linda essig (Winter 1998). charles
levy demonstrated the light Palette to me one
afternoon at the strand factory in new Jersey in
1979 and explained that the reason it had six
parts to a light cue was because Jean rosenthal
wanted electronic boards to be able to achieve
what three electricians using both hands could
do with resistance dimmers. this had become
a guiding principle for developers of computer
control consoles ten years after her death.
computer controlled lighting has led to
numerous changes in the industry with movers, dichroic color changers, show control,
open networks and programmable led lights.
no one draws a light plot by hand anymore. We
could devote an entire column to iPhone and
iPod apps for lighting from wireless dMX interfaces to calculators for beam angle, power
and color cut sheets, gobo catalogs and remote
control of professional level lighting and audio
consoles. could we have foreseen this in our
wildest dreams years ago? undoubtedly, a few
among us considered it possible. Joel rubin
queried a group of lighting designers in the
early 80s about new technology with results
that were surprisingly prophetic: "one designer
thought it would be fun to stay at home and use
his touchtone telephone to set up lighting cues.
another envisioned a sophisticated console in
which the lighting designer would picture what
he wanted and this image would be translated
into a stage picture. another designer pointed

out that computer generated video graphics
and image duplicating systems could allow the
designer to paint with light on a high resolution crt and have the results translated to the
stage picture via elaborate lighting instruments
focused and colored remotely" (fall 1982).
these are common practices now with mobile
devices, Wifi, data visualization, lcd screens
and intelligent lighting fixtures.
a special issue dedicated to sound in 1981
had many references to computing in the collection of articles authored by John bracewell,
rollins brook and david collison. bracewell
mentions computer processing, brook refers
to computerized sound control for managing
the complexities of live mixing and collison
proclaims that "Miniaturized electronics and
the computer have revolutionized theatre lighting control over the last twenty years. theatre
sound, no longer the poor relation, is catching
up fast" (Winter 1981). strand's levy published
a response to collison describing the 1969 reopening of ford's theatre in Washington, d.c.,
pointing out that the entire production was
controlled by a memory system for lighting and
sound (spring 1982).
a new crop of theatre designers, technicians and faculty came of age in the 1980s and
met experienced veterans and new colleagues
eager to share knowledge and experience at
usitt conferences. Professional growth coincided with the emergence of exciting new
computer technologies that infused our work
with enthusiasm for a new level of technological wizardry. creative efforts were enhanced by
the development of cad programs for scenic
and lighting designers. a 1981 computer-drawn
light plot for studio 54 by ferren associates still
hangs on the wall above my workstation. Modes
of communication expanded from telephone,
letters and personal contact to e-mail and listservs on the internet. We embraced a new networking technology through an interface called
bitnet on university mainframes or commercial
programs like compuserve and Prodigy long
before the advent of Yahoo, facebook and twitter. commodore users had Q-link; tandy and
ibMers used Pc-link, which was folded into
aol's e-mail utility in 1989.
the apple Macintosh appeared for the
first time at a special pre-conference computer
symposium held in orlando in 1984. Members tried out design applications and demon-

strated drafting programs with four-color light
plots, costume pattern drafting, and lighting
paperwork that ran on computers made by
ibM, Zenith, radio shack and commodore.
by 1985 articles were appearing on a regular
basis in TD&T featuring public domain software and commercial programs that could be
adapted for theatre applications. there was an
abundance of word processing, spreadsheet,
database, and drafting software. Windows had
become the dominant os since its introduction
in 1983. innovation progressed rapidly with a
session on autocad for technical directors at
the oakland conference in 1985. leonard Harman developed an early lighting paperwork
program that worked with autocad to produce
dimmer schedules from data associated with
block instrument symbols entered on a cad
drawing (spring 1987). that same year Jeff
Hickman organized a panel for the Minneapolis
conference on software resources. We worked
together on four editions of the directory of
software for technical theatre, a usitt publication begun in the late 80s that contained
174 reviews of theatre-related software written
by members representing each of the commissions. usitt leaders considered establishing
a separate computer commission, but it made
more sense to retain the existing organizational
structure.
a 1986 survey by barry cleveland indicated that 78% of theatres were using computers
in at least one area of operation. the average
raM capacity was 512K and 62% were running
computers without a hard disk drive. it seemed
as if everyone was thinking about what they
could do with a computer, but the vast majority (92%) used it for word processing. it was
a time of stand-alone software and dial-up email. We had the internet, but the World Wide
Web was still a few years away.
"software and the stage" reviewed the
progress we had made and looked forward to
the future possibilities with automated drafting
tools, portable computers, image processing,
speech recognition, interactive video and graphics (fall 1988). around this time i spoke with a
publisher about the need for a primer dedicated
to computer-assisted theatre design and he disagreed, saying that all of the people using cad
in the theatre would probably fit in one room.
He should have been around the day our drafting
tables were replaced with workstations, turning

cOMPuterS & SOftwAre
W I N T E R

2010

theatre

design

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Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010 - 1
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Theatre Design & Technology - Winter 2010 - Contents
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1979spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1978spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1977spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1976spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975winter
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975fall
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975summer
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1975spring
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1974Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1973Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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