Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 58

liminary programming of rough delay equations to test out the
theory of how we would approach localizing the actors," Baron
said. "In the little time we had once we arrived at the site, I
programmed the routing of the mics on the Yamaha LS9 console into logical groups for each scene, and then bussed these
groups to the SoundHub for routing to the various loudspeaker
outputs. Then during the first performance, we refined our preprogrammed image definitions, tweaking the levels and delays
at each crosspoint by ear to ensure that the actors would be
localized to the various stages correctly."
Fortunately, the logical groups for each scene invariably
included almost all the actors in the scene, the exception being
the town crier, whose fixed place was beside the wharf platform
next to a large bell that he would ring vigorously, signaling an
imminent announcement.
"Unfortunately, we didn't have enough information to
complete the programming in advance, and had to do it on
site once the show developed," Baron said, noting that not all
vignettes were included in every performance, nor were they always in the same order. Director Terry Hart would occasionally
cut scenes, call them out of order, or select a different stage for
a scene, depending on the weather, overall timing of the show,
and whether or not a group of special guests or sponsors had
arrived in time to see a particular scene, or had to leave early.
In fact, the show was rarely performed the same way twice in a
row. As artistic director Slack explained, "We are not a theatre
company that rehearses for weeks in a fixed environment with a
show that doesn't change."
Baron chose the Yamaha LS9 console for its programmability, which was essential in executing the job. "Mix engineer Joe Zeagman and I programmed parallel cues for each

EqUIPMENT SUPPLIED by FRISCHkORN AUDIO VISUAL
Loudspeakers
Renkus-Heinz PN82 (2 aboard Challenge, 1 on the wharf)
Renkus-Heinz PN61 (2 for coverage in front of the tent)
Renkus-Heinz SG81 (2 at rear of the tent for coverage inside the tent)
Renkus-Heinz PN81 (1 at the rear fence)
Meyer UPM-1P (4 on the gazebo)
Meyer UPA-1A with Ashley FTX 2001 amplifiers and Meyer M1-A
processing (2 at the far end of rear fence)
Microphones
14 Shure UHF-R wireless systems (plus 2 spares)
14 Countryman H6 micro-headsets
TransMiTTers To The ship 2 Shure ULX transmitters and
ULXP receivers
consoLe Yamaha LS9-32 digital console
processing TiMax2 SoundHub-S16 (16 analog I/O with 16 tracks
of hard disk playback)

56

scene in both the LS9 and the TiMax2 SoundHub. The console would control the TiMax2," he explained, "by sending
MIDI commands to step it though the cues that contained the
various image definitions for each scene." They had initially
envisaged advancing cues in the console with an iPad wirelessly over Wi-Fi. "Our iPad app worked wonderfully in the
shop," Baron said, "but on-site we discovered we needed
more hands-on with the faders, so we ended up leaving the
iPad in the box."
Ideally, in a theatre with fixed seating, the different delays
to the various channels are preprogrammed for multiple onstage zones using laser measuring devices and Smaart software,
the data outputs of which are entered into a custom spreadsheet that yields the requisite level and delay data for each audio channel. During a show, a performer's position in three
dimensions can be tracked manually by the operator, or automatically using the TiMax Tracker radar tracking system. As the
performer moves from one zone to another, the input-output
matrix is switched with soft crossfades, so that audio levels and
delays remain appropriate to the performer's position for accurate psychoacoustic localization according to the Haas effect.
We didn't need to use the Tracker system for The Wharf
at York because the blocking did not change significantly once
a scene had begun. The use of dynamic crossfades, however,
helped create the illusion in our soundscape of dogs running
around barking, and of horse carts clattering through the settlement.

Localization Needs a Direct Sound Anchor
The accuracy of localization depends to a large degree on a
performer's ability to project direct sound adequately in order
to provide a strong direct sound anchor that the audience can
unconsciously correlate with the delayed sound reinforcement
emanating from the loudspeakers.
"You must have a good anchor," Haydon explained. "In
opera, for example, the anchor is putting out 130 dBSPL at one
meter-an opera singer is as loud as a 12-and-a-horn box. But
for weaker voices, one of the tricks you can use is to build firstwave front reinforcing speakers into the stage or the set to create an artificial time zero somewhere near the performer. While
the ideal would be to strap a loudspeaker to the performer's
chest, in reality you can accomplish almost the same thing by
positioning a loudspeaker above the head, halfway back up the
stage, which is virtually at time zero as far as the audience is
concerned."
So," Hayden continued, "as well as feeding the voice
though the PA with appropriate delays, you run it undelayed
through the speakers above the performers' heads, which
helps the audience hear it as the anchor reference. That's been
done in a number of theatre spaces, including the Royal Danish

T h e at r e
theatre design

& technology

f

a

l

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2012



Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 3
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 5
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 6
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 7
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 8
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 9
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 10
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 11
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 12
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 13
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 14
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 15
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 16
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 17
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 18
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 19
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 20
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 21
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 24
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 25
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 26
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 27
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 28
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 29
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 30
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 31
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 37
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 40
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 45
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 46
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 47
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 48
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 49
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 50
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 57
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 58
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 59
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 60
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 61
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Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 72
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 73
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 74
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 75
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2012 - 76
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1972May
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1971Dec
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Dec
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https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1970Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1969Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1968Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1967Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966May
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1966Feb
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Dec
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965Oct
https://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/hickmanbrady/tdt_1965May
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