Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - 24


Figure 2. Mr. and Mrs. Zero at home in bed. Note the unique camera angle
in the VR simulation that places them "lying down" while standing. Also
note the silent movie footage visible on the stage floor.

created through the use of a computer and projector mounted
behind a rear projection screen and functioned in a similar
fashion to other VR productions that we have done in the past.
This production was directed by Mechele Leon. The scenery,
lighting, and VR technology were designed by Mark Reaney, the
costumes by Rebecca Damren. Rana Esfandiary was in charge
of creating the content for the digital lighting and programming its control.
The technology to be tested in this production was two pair
of computers and digital projectors, one mounted house left, the
other house right, from which lighting effects could be generated in real time using a series of recorded video sequences and
real-time video manipulation software. The inspiration for this
innovation came from some early work by Rob Shakespeare,
who presented his results of a trial with digital projection lighting at the Virtual Scenography in Live Performance Symposium
in 2006 at Indiana University, where he teaches.
The philosophy behind all of our VR experiments is that
a bridge can be built between traditional theatre methods and
the data-enriched environment to which our audiences are accustomed. By using digital media we are speaking directly to
an audience that spends many hours per day accessing information on electronic devices such as computers, televisions,
tablets, and smartphones. This is the language they are accustomed to speaking and the manner and pace in which they have
trained themselves to absorb information. By contrast, traditional theatre of muslin, paint, and wood may seem comfortable, yet somewhat quaint and old-fashioned. The vast majority
of the visual information that people receive on a daily basis is
digitally produced or enhanced. Web pages, movies, television
shows, even commercials, are created through the use of digital technology. Digital media adopted by the theatre therefore
can present stories built for a modern audience and at a pace

24

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2014

that keeps up with their imaginations. However, by using realtime computing methods, we are able to retain the live quality
of theatre performance which makes it a unique art form.
From a practical standpoint, virtual scenery allows the visual field to change almost instantaneously. This fits with the
cinematic style in which many modern plays are written. Digital
scenography also allows for the creation of impressive visual effects without the excessive budgets and technologies employed
by today's Broadway productions.
Our first experiment, Elmer Rice's The Adding Machine
(1995), was an exercise in using the basic ideas of virtual reality as a scenic medium. This scenery was generated and manipulated in real time and projected in stereoscopic 3-D. The
audience wore polarized glasses to view the projected scenery
in three dimensions. By today's standards the technology was
very rough. The computer was slow, the software rather crude,
the images lacked detail, and the projectors were quite dim
when compared to modern equipment.
The next experiment with a full-length play, Wings by
Arthur Kopit (1996), was an adventure in which the audience
all wore head-mounted displays in order to have the scenery
projected in three dimensions directly before their eyes. In
Tesla Electric (1998), we bypassed the real-time computing
elements in favor of highly detailed, realistic still images which
were again projected in 3-D in a 120-degree cyclorama format.
While the widescreen format was very successful, the real-time
computer effects were sorely missed.
Our fifth production, Machinal by Sophie Treadwell
(1999), returned to real-time VR scenery. This time we were
able to use new generation computers and software with much
brighter projectors. The new twist in this production was the
integration of live video elements coming from cameras trained
on offstage actors and a staging that left the computer and projector operators visible to the audience at all times. A Midsummer Night's Dream followed in 2000, this time staged at the
University of Kent at Canterbury. This production also used live
video from cameras offstage, but in this case the cameras were
rigged to capture video in stereoscopic 3-D to be sent to frontof-house positions and projected in 3-D. Again the audience
wore polarized glasses to achieve the 3-D effect.
Our seventh VR production was a theatre for young audiences show entitled Dinosaurus by Edward Mast and Lenore
Beninger (2001). In this production the scenery was not generated by computers, but the dinosaur characters were. Each
dinosaur was manipulated by computer operators backstage
using joysticks and keyboards. The effect was much like operating gigantic electronic puppets. In The Magic Flute (2003)
we explored new ground by breaking away from the traditional
projection screen/actor relationship. Throughout the production performers carried or wore small projection surfaces onto
which scenic elements could be projected from the orchestra
pit. Those projection screens, which were flown in from the
loft, appeared in a variety of positions and were constructed in
a variety of shapes and sizes.



Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014

Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - BB1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - BB2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - Cover1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - Cover2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - 1
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - 2
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - Contents
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - 4
Theatre Design & Technology - Fall 2014 - 5
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